Not all homes pollute equally—even in the relatively homogeneous world of a mid-sized town in Switzerland. A study of a village of 3,000 finds that 21 percent of households belched half the town's greenhouse gases. The biggest factors running up the carbon tabs of the disproportionate polluters: the size of their houses and the length of their commutes. Airline travel wasn't factored into this research.

The energy people use to power their homes and drive their lives accounts for more than 70 percent of CO2 emissions, write the authors in  Environmental Science & Technology. But in addressing that problem policymakers and environmentalists mostly point their fingers at the supply side: power plants, heating and cooling systems, and the fuel efficiency of cars. The Swiss researchers chose to parse it differently and developed a lifecycle assessment model of how energy consumption for housing and car travel, per household and per capita, impacts greenhouse gas emissions.

Their conclusion: â€‹energy conservation in a small number of households could go a long way to reducing greenhouse gas emissions. If the super polluting homes cut their emissions in half, the authors write, "the total emissions of the community would be reduced by 25 percent."

Be interesting to see the model these researchers developed used to compare the larger income and lifestyle gaps typical in US towns and cities.

I wrote more about the power of individual choices in combating emissions in Diet for a Warm Planet.

Animal rights activist Amy Meyer was the first person to be prosecuted under an ag gag law for a disturbing scene she caught on tape in February at the Dale T. Smith and Sons Meat Packing Co. in Draper, Utah. 

Meyer was standing on a public easement outside the barbed wire fence that encloses the slaughterhouse and recorded a tractor carrying away a downer cow and flesh coming out of a chute on the side of a building. She was approached by the manager of the company who told her she had to leave, citing Utah's ag gag law: "If you read the rights here and the laws in Utah, you can't film an agricultural property without my consent."

Check out Meyer's footage, first published this week by environmental blogger Will Potter:

Utah's law, enacted in March 2012, makes it illegal to record, "an image of, or sound from, an agricultural operation while the person is committing criminal trespass." Like many other states' ag gag laws, Utah also forbids obtaining, "access to an agricultural operation under false pretenses." As Ted Genoways' reveals in a recent investigation for Mother Jones, laws criminalizing whistleblowing on Big Ag have been sweeping the country in the past few years. Ag gag laws were introduced in 12 states just this year, and are currently pending in Pennsylvania and North Carolina. Check out MoJo's map to see where these bills have passed and failed.

Meyer used to pass by the slaughterhouse on her way to volunteer at a local animal sanctuary in Draper, where the mayor is a co-owner of the meat-packing plant, and felt compelled to, "do more to fight what's happening to cows inside factory farms and slaughterhouses," she told Mother Jones. After she filmed the downer cow incident and then a confrontation with Smith and Sons's manager, police arrived to question Meyer, but did not detain her. She was later charged with "agricultural operation interference." As shown by the video, Meyer was standing on public property while recording, which was why the prosecutor ultimately dropped the charges on April 30, after Potter publicized the case

On May 18, hundreds of local activists gathered outside the slaughterhouse to protest the state's ag gag law. A spokesperson for the plant told ABC News, "the meat processing facility is inspected daily and has a good record for animal care," and the company maintained in a written statement that their "animal handling and treatment practices are humane and responsible."

However, as Meyer points out to the plant's manager in the video, more transparency is in order: "Why are you concerned about being filmed, if you think this is a legitimate business?"

Twitter user @ShaneKeller posts a photo of the Calgary Zoo almost completely underwater. @ShaneKeller/Twitter

Flood waters from two rivers that converge on the Canadian city of Calgary have paralyzed mass transit, shuttered downtown, and closed schools, as thousands received emergency evacuation notices yesterday and this morning. And locals are being told the worst floods in decades are not over yet. "We are still expecting that the worst has not yet come in terms of the flow," Mayor Naheed Nenshi told CBC News on Friday.

You can find a helpful map of the most affected areas here. There have been no reports of fatalities.

In the last 48 hours, more than six inches of rain have fallen in the Calgary area alone, and CBC is reporting that more is on its way, with the highest amounts expected west of Calgary.  The city reports that the Elbow River crested this morning and water levels in Bow River are expected to remain extremely high for several days. That has prompted nearly a dozen emergency warnings of flash flooding, burst banks, and overflowed dams in the province. All Calgarians have been asked by local authorities to refrain from non-essential travel. Locals are also being encouraged to boil their water in seven Calgary communities to stop the spread of infection. According to the officials, 1500 people have sought out emergency shelters across the city.

Fast-moving debris from the flood also ruptured a pipeline carrying "sour gas"—a stinky, toxic gas comprised of one percent hydrogen sulfide that can be deadly if inhaled—in Alberta's Turner Valley, prompting further evacuations. Crews have reportedly contained the leak.

Calgary flooding
Flooded Calgary streets after torrential rainfall caused two rivers to overrun their banks, forcing the evacuation of thousands. Bandit Queen/Flickr

Flooding has also forced the closure of the last two days of the Sled Island music festival, which featured more than 250 bands plus comedy, film and art events at 30 local venues, and stranded its organizers in a generator-powered Calgary hotel. "It is a huge disappointment for all of us for sure, because we've been working so hard to put this together," said Maud Salvi, the event director, by phone. "I think we're just all trying to accept the fact that there's nothing we can do." Logistics are being complicated by wide-spread power outages at venues across the city,

Twitter user Connor Deering seemed to sum up some of the Canadian spirit in the face of adversity: "Since the city is shut down, may as well just start drinking". You can see the power of the flood waters from Thursday in this supercut: 

The solar plane will land in New York City soon, but its water-borne counterpart is already here: Early this week the world's largest solar-powered boat steamed into lower Manhattan and docked in small marina, usually reserved for multimillion dollar yachts, in the shadow of the new World Trade Center tower. The three-year-old ship, dubbed "Turanor" after a term for solar power in The Lord of the Rings, is on a tour of the Atlantic from its home base in southern France, documenting how the warming sea is shifting the Gulf Stream, a powerful cross-ocean current that drives the weather of Europe and West Africa.

The more liberals and conservatives know about science, the more they have wildly variant views about the risks of global warming, according to research by Yale’s Dan Kahan. You might call it the "smart idiot" effect—knowledge, itself, seems to make people with diametrically opposed views more sure that they're right, and thus worsens the political fight over what is actually scientifically true.

And recent research suggests that the smart idiot effect isn't limited to climate change—it also applies to public perception of fracking. At the center of a growing number of regional environmental disputes, fracking (short for hydraulic fracturing) refers to the process of blasting water and chemicals down wells at high pressure to crack shale layers and, in the process, release their hydrocarbon goodies.

Why is the fracking issue prime terrain for another smart idiot effect—and another extreme bifurcation of the left and the right over what is factually true and accurate?

Well, first, the issue is clearly growing in political salience—witness the recent Matt Damon film Promised Land—but still falls shy of going fully mainstream. According to a recent poll by the Yale and George Mason projects on climate change communication, less than half of Americans even have an opinion on the issue. But already, the more people know about it, the more they fall into either the "strongly support" or "strongly oppose" camp on the issue.

Indeed, if we turn back to Kahan's research, we find that fracking shows a smart idiot effect that looks comparable to the one seen on global warming.

Here's one figure from Kahan's data, showing the relationship between one's score on a general test of scientific literacy, one's left-right political values, and one's views on how dangerous global warming is. Note that Kahan refers to those on the left as "egalitarian communitarians" and those on the right as "hierarchical individualists," but there is high overlap between these groups and good old "liberals" and "conservatives," respectively:

Now, look at the same analysis when applied to the fracking issue:

Just as in the case of global warming, for people with conservative cultural values (hierarchical individualists), their conviction that fracking is just dandy for the environment increases with an increasing level of scientific literacy. But for those with liberal cultural values—egalitarian communitarians—the movement is in the opposite direction. With increasing scientific literacy, their conviction that fracking harms the environment increases. (To be sure, fracking and global warming are different in one key respect: On fracking, the science is murkier and more contested, and indeed, the Environmental Protection Agency is still trying to resolve the question of how it may affect drinking water supplies.)

In other words, the more scientifically literate you are, the more your values seem to bias you on fracking—and drive you to a diametrically opposed position from the one embraced by your political rivals.

What this means, unfortunately, is that as the fracking issue grows in prominence, people are going to be very hard to move or sway—despite the actual facts. It also means that the people who will be the hardest to sway are those who know a lot about it. The more they know, the more biased and polarized they’ll be, the more likely to double down on their beliefs. And each time some fracking-related news story rises to the level of national consciousness, each side will be ready with its "facts" and its "experts."

Earlier today the House defeated the most recent version of the Farm Bill, a $940 billion piece of legislation that regulates both food stamps and farm subsidies in the US, by a vote of 195-234.

Both Republicans and Democrats voted against the bill: Republicans complained that it didn't create enough savings while Democrats took issue with the bill's deep cuts to food stamps. "What is happening on the floor today was major amateur hour," Nancy Pelosi (who was speaker when the last Farm Bill passed, in 2007) told Politico. "They didn't get results and they put the blame on somebody else."

The House bill would have saved an estimated $33 billion over ten years, with the majority of that savings ($21 billion) coming from cuts to food stamps, which account for almost 80 percent of farm bill spending. Part of those savings would come from requiring "asset tests" that ensure the 48 million Americans who participate in the food stamp program don't have more than $2,000 in the bank, or own a car worth more than $5,000. Democrats including Pelosi have been saying for days that they wouldn't vote for the bill if it included the cuts to food stamps.

The Senate's version of the farm bill, passed last month, cut food stamps but only to the tune of $4 billion dollars. This chart from the congressional research service shows where the cuts would come from in each bill ("Nutrition" is the food stamps program):

Bar chart of two bills

When it comes to farm subsidies, the farm bill's other main set of policies, the bills in the House and the Senate are roughly the same. USA Today explains:

The Senate and House farm bills are largely similar when it comes to farm policy issues, with both measures streamlining conservation programs, expanding the federally subsidized crop insurance program and slashing subsidy paymentsincluding the elimination of the $5 billion a year in direct payments doled out to farmers regardless of whether they grow crops. In a bid to help Southern growers who depend on direct payments, each bill would set higher support prices for rice and peanut farmers, meaning growers would see subsidy payments kick in sooner.

But a significant divide exists between the two chambers in the scope of proposed cuts to the country's food stamp program, now known as the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program, that will likely continue to be a sticking point in determining whether the farm bill passes.

Congress now has until January 1st to pass a new Farm Bill, though it's unclear when the House will bring the bill back up for a vote again. "If it doesn't pass, I don't know if it's going to come up again in this Congress," Congressman Frank Lucas (R-Okl.), chair of the House agriculture committee who had steered the bill to a vote today, told the New York Times before today's vote.

2012 was the second-worst year on record for extreme weather events, both in number and in cost, according to a tally released this morning by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Eleven major events—including tornadoes, wildfires, droughts, and hurricanes—racked up a collective bill of over $110 billion, with cropland damage from drought in the Midwest ($17.36 billion in crop insurance payments alone) and Hurricane Sandy, with a $60 billion price tag, as the most expensive items.


As for this summer, the costs are still piling on: Feed and water scarcity have shrunk the nation's cattle supply to its lowest point since 1952, pushing beef prices to an all-time high, and NOAA scientists predict that pasture conditions will likely be worse this summer than last.

According to the latest forecast, although drought conditions have dropped 21 percent from their peak last September, nearly half of the country is still in some kind of drought, with the worst conditions moving west through the summer into California and Oregon.

"The drought has definitely been pushing westward," Mark Svoboda of the National Drought Mitigation Center in Nebraska told reporters, adding that the devastating wildfires that have recently hit states like Colorado and New Mexico are "just the start." 


Svoboda added that lightning from the upcoming monsoon season in the Southwest created a particular wildfire risk in this still tinder-dry region, although Arizona and the central plains are expected to see some improvement of drought conditions, the result of a relatively wet spring:


Crude oil from the March 29 pipeline spill in Mayflower, Arkansas contained enough of the carcinogen benzene to pollute as much as 188 million gallons of drinking water—or enough to fill 284 Olympic-sized swimming pools—according to figures the Environmental Working Group (EWG) released Thursday. The oil also contained toxics like toluene, ethylbenzene, lead, and chromium, according to independent lab testing conducted for EWG.

The spill from Exxon's Pegasus pipeline dumped 210,000 gallons of bitumen, a particularly nasty type of crude oil from Canada's tar sands, into an Arkansas neighborhood. The spill provided further fodder to critics of the proposed Keystone XL pipeline, which would carry the same type of oil. The presence of those chemicals in the sample is not a surprise, really; they are found in most forms of crude oil. But EWG's director of research, Renee Sharp, said the 4.5 parts per million of benzene the tests found were "concerning" because, when extrapolated out to the total gallons spilled, that's enough benzene to contaminate between 132 and 188 million gallons of drinking water beyond the levels EPA deems acceptable.

What's perhaps more interesting, however, is how the sample made its way to EWG. Billionaire clean tech investor Tom Steyer asked a local resident of Mayflower to gather the sample. The resident put it in a Tupperware container, and someone drove it to DC and passed it off to a PR firm working with Steyer. The PR firm eventually gave it to EWG, which hired a lab to run the tests.

Steyer, a big donor to President Barack Obama's campaign, has made the proposed Keystone XL pipeline a major focus of his attention—and his spending. He's promised to raise holy hell if the Obama administration approves the pipeline, which would carry nearly 900,000 barrels of bitumen through the US every day. You can see a photo of Steyer holding the oil in a mason jar in this Bloomberg profile. On Thursday morning, Steyer, EWG, and other environmental organizations will kick off a "Stop Keystone" social media campaign aimed at swaying the Obama administration.

Because the Mayflower resident didn't collect the oil using more conventional methods for environmental surveys, EWG says it's likely that amount of chemicals the analysts found were underestimates. Other chemicals, like volatile organic compounds, may have evaporated between the time it was collected and the time they did the analysis. But the chemicals they did find no joke: toluene exposure causes damage to the nervous and the kidneys, and exposure during pregnancy can cause birth defects; ethylbenzene is another carcinogen and may damage the nervous system. Other chemicals present in the sample can damage the respiratory system and skin.

Sharp also expressed concern about the chemicals that EWG didn't test for—because no one actually knows what is in the oil traveling through these pipelines. Bitumen in its natural state is viscous or even solid; in order to transport the oil, companies add other chemicals to make it move through the pipes. This mixture is called diluted bitumen, or "dillbit," but the companies guard the chemical mixture as a trade secret. The lab can't test for chemicals that they don't know about. (You can read the Pulitzer Prize-winning series from Inside Climate for more on the issues surrounding this type of oil.)

Those unknowns, too, should be discussed in the context of Keystone, says Sharp. The pipeline would pass over, under, and through aquifers, rivers, and other ground water sources. "We're debating this massive pipeline project," she says, "and we still don't know what is actually going to be transported in the pipeline."

Authorities are still investigating what started Colorado's record-breaking Black Forest fire. But Rachel Ehrenfeld, the director of the neoconservative think tank American Center for Democracy, unveiled a potential suspect in a blog post on Sunday: Al Qaeda. Or drug cartels. Or maybe illegal immigrants.

While many of the fires that have scorched millions of acres and destroyed thousands of homes in Arizona, California, Colorado, New Mexico, Utah and other states have been identified as arson, none have been publicly attributed to criminal or terrorist groups, despite the presence of Mexican gangs and large number of other illegals in our Western states ... How many Tzarnaevs are hiding in Colorado's woods?

Ehrenfeld, whose group includes Iraq War advocate Richard Perle and former CIA director R. James Woolsey, notes that Al Qaeda's English-language magazine Inspire published a how-to guide for starting forest fires last year. The article singled out Montana as America's most fire-attack-worthy state due its large number of citizens living near forests. A decade ago, an Al Qaeda detainee told the FBI about a potential plot to ignite several wildfires at once across the country, though the National Interagency Fire Center officials said at the time that they didn't see it as a particularly credible threat.

Don Smurthwaite, a spokesman for the Bureau of Land Management, downplayed Ehhrenfeld's worries, but he didn't dismiss the notion outright. "We don't have any hard evidence that any wildfires in the US were started by terrorists in recent years," he said. "But is it a possibility? Certainly." He added that wildfires were last weaponized in World War II, when Japanese forces sent incendiary balloons across the Pacific in hopes of starting damaging blazes in Western forests.

Last year, humans started 58,331 wildfires in the US, compared to fewer than 10,000 caused by lightning, according to the National Interagency Fire Center. But lightning fires burned 6.8 million acres, more than twice the amount consumed by human-caused flames. That's because the latter tend to occur in much smaller areas, Smurthwaite said. Campfires, fireworks, and vehicle fires are to blame for most wildfires.

What ACD's Ehrenfeld and other wildfire terrorism hand-wringers don't seem interested in exploring is how much more devastating an attack could be if climate change continues unabated, with dry air, high winds, and low humidity making fires more frequent and ferocious. Even Inspire highlights the effects dry conditions and strong winds can have on blazes. The magazine's first issue also featured a column on the need to address climate change that Osama bin Laden supposedly penned. (Bin Laden's proposed solutions to climate change—boycotting US goods and killing American troops in the Middle East—are slightly outside the scientific mainstream, however.)

If the government does deem the threat of a terrorist wildfire to be credible, forest flammability could become yet another opportunity to reframe climate change as a matter of national security, along with issues like water shortages, energy security, and overseas disaster response. Until then, perhaps it's time to get Smokey Bear's drone fleet up and running.