Occupational Licensing: Should We Care?

Should states require that interior designers be licensed? How about manicurists? Hair stylists? Florists? Why not let people do these things without bothering to put hurdles in their way that, in the end, mostly just protect existing manicurists/hair stylists/florists from competition? It's not as if a bad manicure is really that big a deal, after all. Today, Felix Salmon takes a crack at making the progressive case for licensing:

Broadly speaking, the more constraints you have on a profession, the less likely you are to see massive inequality within that profession. If you got rid of licensing for profession X, you’d see many more low-paid Xs than you do right now, and you’d also see a significant uptick in earnings at the very top of the X profession. It’s a second-order effect, to be sure, but I’m pretty sure that at the margin, licensing helps to reduce inequality.

I’m in favor of reducing the number of gratuitous licensing laws; I’m also a fan of motherhood and apple pie. But at the same time I think they are, in a sense, a form of worker protection which is acceptable to Republicans — think of them as unions for people who hate unions. And that’s not entirely a bad thing.

Hmmm. Putting aside the question of whether this is a good justification for licensing regimes, is it actually true? Does licensing really reduce income inequality within professions? Felix links to an article about growing inequality at the tops of big law firms, but I'm not sure how that supports his case. Law, after all, is one of the most strongly licensed fields we have. If three years of law school plus a bar exam plus large amounts of professional regulation aren't enough to keep income inequality in check in the legal field, I'm not sure that nine months of barbering instruction would have much effect at all in the barbering field.

Beyond that, though, I'd like to have some idea of the raw numbers here. Take a look at this page, for example, which lists the licensed occupations in the state of New Jersey. Barbers are there, of course, and maybe they shouldn't be. I'm not sure. But the majority of the occupations are in the healthcare industry, where I think we can widely agree that some kind of certification is a good idea. And even some of the others look pretty justifiable if you think about them a bit. Plumbers and electrical contractors? The state probably has a legitimate interest in making sure that nitwits don't damage public property (sewer systems) or cause neighborhood fires because they don't know what they're doing. Locksmiths and burglar alarm installers? That might be a crime control thing. Landscape architects? I'm not sure about that one. But maybe drainage issues are important for more than just the house getting the landscaping?

Still, it's mostly healthcare. The last time I had some blood drawn I asked how one gets to be a blood drawer. The answer, first of all, is that the proper term is phlebotomist. And second, you take a six week class in order to get certified. (In California, anyway.) During the first few weeks of this class the aspiring phlebotomists learn the basics by drawing each other's blood many times each day. Sounds grim, doesn't it? My phlebotomist assured me it was. Still, she did a pretty good job of drawing my blood, for which I'm grateful. So has every other phlebotomist who's ever drawn my blood. That sounds like a win for phlebotomy certification.

In any case, my question is this: sure, you can find silly cases like Louisiana's florist licensing requirement. And the hairdressing/manicuring industry is a big one where licensing requirements are at least questionable. But overall, what percentage of licensed professionals are in sectors where the requirement is genuinely dubious? Once you take out the healthcare folks, where licensing seems pretty reasonable, as well as the other areas where licensing seems justifiable, how much is left outside the barbering/manicuring industry? Are the funny examples of stupid licensing requirements really widespread, or are they just the kind of rare horror stories that all human endeavors inevitably produce? In other words, is runaway occupational licensing really a big deal? Or just a minor issue that deserves a minor bit of attention? It would be nice to see some actual facts and figures on this.

UPDATE: Adam Ozimek has a useful response here. It doesn't have all the figures I'd like to see, but it does have a few comparative numbers of interest.

How To Tell Time In Germany

Like those apocryphal Eskimos with their endless names for snow, Frank Jacobs reports that the famously punctual Germans have four different ways to tell time:

In a large part of north-western Germany, from the Danish to the French border, the preferred option is viertel nach zehn ('quarter after ten')....In what used to be East Germany, the same clock time is referenced as viertel elf ('quarter eleven')....An option limited to German-speaking Switzerland is to call this particular time viertel ab zehn ('quarter from ten')....Another national Option is viertel über zehn ('quarter over ten'), used only in central parts of Austria.

Wait a second. Shouldn't there be five ways to say this? What about the German version of "ten fifteen"? Doesn't anyone use that? After all, what do they do when it's 10:12 and there's no handy "quarter" or "half" shortcut to use? 

Centrist Dems Plot Against the Mandate

Politico reports that a few centrist Dems are planning to do what centrist Dems always do:

A handful of moderate Senate Democrats are looking for ways to roll back the highly contentious individual mandate — the pillar of President Barack Obama’s health care law — a sign that red-state senators are prepared to assert their independence ahead of the 2012 elections.

....And it’s not just health care. The senators are prepared to break with the White House on a wide range of issues: embracing deeper spending cuts, scaling back business regulations and overhauling environmental rules. The moderates most likely to buck their party include [the usual suspects....]

Second things first: on non-healthcare issues, I understand this entirely. Red-state Democrats want to demonstrate their moderate bona fides in order to shore up their right flank before the 2012 election. This is standard behavior, completely predictable, and might even work.

But on healthcare, I wonder what they could possibly be thinking? The individual mandate can't simply be rolled back, it would have to be replaced. And there are ways to do that. But there's no way that any Republicans will ever vote for any of them. Their base wouldn't stand for it, it would wreck their chance of having the Supreme Court throw out the whole thing, it would tacitly accept that PPACA is here to stay, and it would provide political cover for vulnerable Democrats. Hell, Republicans wouldn't even vote for repeal of the 1099 provision last year — a move that virtually everyone in both parties supported — because it might have taken a slight bit of tea party pressure off of Democrats. And that was after the election. There's just no way that a repeal of the invididual mandate will gain even the slightest traction among conservatives. The whole thing reeks of desperation.

Politics being what it is, it's vanishingly unlikely that there will be any substantial changes to PPACA until after the 2012 election and after the Supreme Court rules on the mandate. Until then, Republicans will hold out hope that they can use it to fan the flames of tea party fury and either (a) win the 2012 election or (b) win the Supreme Court case. Or both! Only once that's over, and PPACA is fundamentally here to stay, will it be possible to enact any improvements to the law.

Bullying and Social Status

And now, in news you can use, here's the latest headline on the social sciences front:

Study links teenage bullying to social status

I'm glad we cleared that up. And in fairness, the article leads off with an admission that this study has merely "confirmed an axiom of teenage life." What's more, there was this interesting tidbit:

[Robert Faris] found that the teenagers' propensity toward aggression rose along with their social status. Aggressive behavior peaked when students hit the 98th percentile for popularity, suggesting that they were working hard to claw their way to the very top. However, those who were in the top 2% of a school's social hierarchy generally didn't harass their fellow students. At that point, they may have had little left to gain by being mean, and picking on others only made them seem insecure, Faris said.

This also makes sense, and it's slightly less obvious than the main result. However, it's not clear that the causality is being properly placed here. It's possible that making it into the top 2% finally makes you secure enough not to bully, but I think it's more likely that it's the other way around: only the fairly secure kids ever make it into the top 2% in the first place. Everybody picks up on insecurity, and insecure kids just don't have the confident personalities that get you all the way to the top of the heap. More studies, please.

Quote of the Day: Omar Suleiman

From the LA Times, on newly minted Egyptian vice president Omar Suleiman's dedication to democracy:

U.S. officials privately acknowledged that there is no guarantee that Suleiman, a former intelligence chief closely aligned with the military, is committed to substantial reforms.

Ya think?

Is China's Crash Near?

China is still trying to get its bubblicious economy under control:

China staged its third interest rate increase since October on Tuesday, the latest sign of the authorities’ intensifying efforts to temper the blistering pace of economic growth and prevent already worrisome inflation levels from escalating further. The central bank in Beijing raised its benchmark one-year deposit rate by a quarter of a percentage point, to 3 percent.

....Data released by the National Bureau of Statistics on Jan. 20 put the pace of growth at 10.3 percent for 2010 — up from 9.2 percent in 2009 — significantly above what analysts had expected. Inflation came in at 4.6 percent for December — well above what the authorities are comfortable with — and could rise further, economists believe. As in many other emerging economies, rapid growth has combined with easy credit and inflows of cash from overseas to push up asset and consumer prices this year.

Plus there's this:

The state-run news media in China warned Monday that the country’s major agricultural regions were facing their worst drought in 60 years and said Tuesday that Shandong Province, a cornerstone of Chinese grain production, was bracing for its worst drought in 200 years unless substantial precipitation came by the end of this month.

World wheat prices are already surging and have been widely cited as one reason for protests in Egypt and elsewhere in the Arab world. China has been essentially self-sufficient in grain for decades for national security reasons, and any move by China to import large quantities of food in response to the drought could drive international prices even higher, creating serious problems for less affluent countries that rely on imported food.

Obviously this could cause problem for other countries, as the Times notes. But I'm also working on the assumption that China's measures to control its economy are too little too late, which means that a shock to China might also be the catalyst that bursts China's bubble, and does it abruptly rather than gradually. Unfortunately, I continue to consider it likely that China in 2011 is similar to the United States in 2007, with disaster looming around the corner. We did too little to head it off then (though by 2007 it would have been too late even for more extreme measures to be effective), and I suspect China is doing too little to head it off now.

Yes, I know I'm wearing my pessimist hat this morning. Hopefully that's all there is to this.

The Washington Post reports today on problems with an iPhone game for children called Smurfs' Village, which allows kids to "build a complete Smurfs village from scratch":

Over the winter break from school, 8-year-old Madison worked to dress up her simple mushroom home on the iPhone game Smurfs' Village. In doing so, she also amassed a $1,400 bill from Apple....But like a growing number of parents, Madison's mom, Stephanie Kay, was shocked to find very real charges from iTunes show up in her e-mail box days later.

....The practice is troubling parents and public interest groups, who say $99 for a wagon of Smurfberries or $19 for a bucket of snowflakes doesn't have any business in a children's game. Though a password is needed to make a purchase, critics say that the safeguards aren't strong enough and that there are loopholes.

Loopholes? You've got to be kidding. What possible justification can a game developer (Capcom in this case) have for charging real money for virtual objects under any circumstances? If you can sucker adults into doing this, that's one thing. But these are games for kids. Of course they think the charges are just play money. So would most parents. What person in his right mind would even consider the possibility that a corporation would charge a hundred real dollars for a wagon of virtual Smurfberries?

Come to think of it, this actually sounds fairly predatory even for adult games, though I suppose I'm being hopelessly naive and elderly on that score. But kids? Somebody please tell me I'm not crazy to be genuinely shocked over this.

Bad News for Charter Schools

The New York Times reports today that not everyone who graduates from high school in New York is ready for college. That's no surprise. But the news for charter schools was pretty grim:

Statewide, 77 percent of students graduate from high school....A state committee determined last year that a 75 on the English Regents and a 80 on the math Regents roughly predicted that students would get at least a C in a college-level course in the same subject. Scores below that meant students had to often take remediation classes before they could do college-level work. Only 41 percent of New York State graduates in 2009 achieved those scores.

....The data also cast new doubt on the ability of charter schools to outperform their traditional school peers. Statewide, only 10 percent of students at charters graduated in 2009 at college-ready standards, though 49 percent received diplomas.

Statewide in New York, about 50% of high school graduates are college ready. In charter schools, about 20% of graduates are college ready. This isn't an apples-to-apples comparison, since we don't know whether the charter schools had the same quality of incoming students as the public schools. Most likely they didn't, as the lower graduation rate shows. Still, that's a helluva gap. It's not good news for the charter school movement.

A tweet from the editor of National Review:

Wait a second. This can't possibly come as a surprise, can it? Has Lowry watched Fox or listened to some of his, um, less inhibited fellow righties at all lately? Hell, it's a miracle there are still a few conservatives left who don't believe Obama is a Muslim.

Both Lowry and Bill Kristol1 have gone after Glenn Beck for his nutball conspiracy theorizing over the past week about caliphates and the Muslim Brotherhood. That's good news, because someone on the right needs to do this. Now it's time for them to do the same to anyone who helps prolong the maybe-Obama-is-a-Muslim-maybe-he's-not-it's-kinda-hard-to-know meme. Then they can work up to disowning Sarah Palin.

1It was sort of amusing this afternoon to watch Beck take shots at Kristol on his show, immediately followed by a commercial break extolling the virtues of the Weekly Standard.

From Steve Tribble, the county judge executive of Kentucky's Christian County, where a planned road project is now at risk thanks to the tea party-inspired ban on earmarks:

I do agree we have to cut from somewhere. I am against some earmarks [But] not the good ones. I can promise you this is not a road to nowhere.

Well, yeah, nobody wants their earmarks cut, do they? As the story goes on to explain, "Scores of lawmakers are going to find themselves explaining to the people back home why their bridges will not be finished, their rape victim programs canceled before they started, their federal requirements ignored." Have fun, folks!