Article created by The Century Foundation
America's enterprise in Iraq crossed a somber landmark when the 2,000th American soldier died this week. Most of the major papers focused on this story, and the New York Times printed photographs of 1,000 soldiers who have given their lives. But the figure of 2,000 is an arbitrary one, and clouds our understanding of the wars impact. There are other numbers that give a fuller accounting of the costs of this war.
- Fifteen thousand, for example: the
number of America's wounded. While body armor and improved medical technology
has raised the survival rate from 75 percent in Vietnam to 87 percent today,
almost half of these injuries (7,159 of 15,220) are serious. Ten percent of
the wounded will go home with spinal injuries. Another ten percent have experienced
head injuries, and many will suffer brain damage. Amputation rates, at 6 percent,
are double the historic norm. "You live," says
Lt. Col. Craig Silverton, an orthopedic surgeon, "but you have these
devastating injuries." "Somebody's got to pay the price," says
Joseph Brennan, a head and neck surgeon, "And these kids are paying
In March, a photo essay by Johnny Dwyer published in the New York Times Magazine described what the word "casualty" encompasses: "deep flesh wounds, burst eardrums, shattered teeth, perforated organs, flash burns to the eyes, severed limbs." The images are even more powerful; they strip away the anesthetized images we have of 'survivors.' These soldiers may survive, but their dreamsof playing sports again, going to college, walking on the beachwill not. Other soldiers, not tallied in these casualty figures, will suffer from psychological trauma for the rest of their days.
- Three hundred and fifteen billion dollars is the price of health-care
for the wounded, according
to Linda Bilmes, a public finance professor at Harvard University. Blimes
extrapolated from data on disability claims from the Gulf War to calculate
this figure; if it is even close to the mark it will burden the Veteran Affairs
department for decades.
- Four thousand is the estimated number of families that have had a
spouse or parent killed or seriously wounded. Many of these families are working
class and have lost a primary breadwinner. Soldiers in National Guard and
reserve units, who did not anticipate a lengthy and dangerous deployment when
they signed up, now
account for one-third of all dead and wounded.
- Thirty thousand is the frequently-cited number of Iraqis who have died directly from the war. But when you factor in indirect results of the warincreased infant mortality, damage to infrastructure, the rise in criminality, and other changes from pre-war Iraqthe number skyrockets. A team led by Les Roberts of the Johns Hopkins School of Public Health, published a study one year ago in The Lancet that showed that the United States-led invasion had resulted in 100,000 Iraqi civilian deaths during the first 18 months. When you factor in injuries (in the hundreds of thousands) and economic disruption it becomes clear that the Iraqis are bearing staggering costs.