Poor Losers: Sources

1 in 4 U.S. jobs provides below-poverty level income: Penn State University, Poverty in America: One Nation, Pulling Apart.

Americans spending at least one year below the poverty line: Mark R. Rank, Professor of Sociology, Washington University. St. Louis, Mo.

Number of Americans who are officially poor: U.S. Census Bureau, Income, Poverty and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2004."

Household average net worth: Federal Reserve, Recent Changes in U.S. Family Finances: Evidence from the 2001 and 2004 Survey of Consumer Finances."

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Bush tax cuts: Tax Policy Center, Conference Agreement on the Tax Increase Prevention and Reconciliation Act of 2005: Distribution of Federal Tax Change By Income Class.î 10-May-06.

Sen. Charles Grassley: Congressional Record, Oct. 1, 2002, p. S9657.

Healthy Marriages funding: FY 2006 Budget Analysis, AFSCME.org; DHHS Press Release; Deficit Reduction Act of 2005 (S. 1932), Sec. 7101.

Cuts to housing for people with disabilities: White House Office of Management and Budget, Budget of the United States Government, FY 2007.

Commuting expenses for working poor: U.S. Department of Transportation /Bureau of Transportation Statistics, Commuting Expenses: Disparity for the Working Poor."

Commuting expenses for middle-income workers: U.S. Department of Transportation /Bureau of Transportation Statistics, Commuting Expenses: Disparity for the Working Poor."

New jobs in suburbs: U.S. Department of Transportation/Bureau of Transportation Statistics. Welfare Reform and Access to Jobs in Boston.î January 1998.

Boston jobs near public transit: U.S. Department of Transportation/Bureau of Transportation Statistics. Welfare Reform and Access to Jobs in Boston. January 1998.

Welfare moms and car ownership: U.S. Department of Transportation/Bureau of Transportation Statistics. Welfare Reform and Access to Jobs in Boston. January 1998.

Welfare leavers: Department of Health and Human Services Administration for Children & Families: TANF Welfare Statistics 2002.

1 in 7 have no support: Urban Institute, Disconnected Welfare Leavers Face Serious Risks Pamela J. Loprest, August 2003.

Number of uninsured Americans: U.S. Census Bureau, Income, Poverty and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2004."

Companies that offer health insurance: U.S. Census Bureau, Health Insurance Coverage in the United States 2002."

Uninsured with medical debt: Gaps in Health Insurance: An All-American Problem, The Commonwealth Fund.

Doctors providing reduced-cost care: Center for Studying Health System Change, U.S. Physician Charity Care Continues Decade-Long Decline. March 23, 2006.

The Rich Rise, the Poor Stagnate: US Census Bureau, Income in the United States: 2002, "Table A4 Selected Measures of Household Income Dispersion: 1967-2002."

Elderly income: Penn State University, Poverty in America: One Nation, Pulling Apart.

Minnesota man doesn't pay fire fee: International Falls Fire Department, Chief Jerry Jensen, International Falls, Minnesota.

Health costs of high-school dropouts: Muennig, Peter. Health Returns to Education Interventions," Columbia University. Fall 2005 symposium on the social costs of inadequate education.

Gap between white and black men's wages: Western, Bruce and Becky Pettit. "Black-White Wage Inequality, Employment Rates, and Incarceration, American Journal of Sociology. Vol. 111, No. 2 (Sept. 2005): 553-78.

True jobless rate of black men/prison record reduces wages: Bruce Western, Professor of Sociology, Princeton University.

College tuition and Pell Grants: The College Board, Trends in Student Aid 2003."

Poor students and college attendance: U.S. Department of Education, Advisory Committee on Student Financial Aid. Empty Promises: They Myth of College Access in America. June 2002.

Consumer Price Index up 25%: U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics "Consumer Price Index"tag" May 17, 2006; History of Federal Minimum Wage Rates Under the Fair Labor Standards Act.

Milk price comparison: Double Jeopardy, Why the Poor Pay More, Advocasey, Annie E. Casey Foundation.

Brooklyn bodegas: New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene. Eating In, Eating Out, Eating Well: Access to Healthy Food in North and Central Brooklyn."

Corn subsidies and prices of soda and fruit: USDA, "The corporate jet: Necessity or ultimate executive toy?"tag USA Today, April 26, 2005, and Morgan Stanley Proxy Statement February 2006.

NIH spending per capita: National Institutes of Health "Estimates of Funding for Various Diseases, Conditions, Research Areas"; CDC "Reported Cases of Lyme Disease by Year".

Federal housing subsidies to households earning more than $77,000: Cushing N. Dolbeare and Sheila Crowley, "Changing Priorities: The Federal Budget and Housing Assistance, 1976-2007."tag August 2002.

HUD's budget has declined by 65%: Cushing N. Dolbeare and Sheila Crowley, "Changing Priorities: The Federal Budget and Housing Assistance, 1976-2007"tag August 2002; National Low Income Housing Coalition Tabulations of FY 2007 Budget.

Sub-prime mortgages have risen tenfold: Edward Gramlich, "Subprime Mortgage Lending: Benefits, Costs, and Challenges" May 21, 2004.

1 in 4 sub-prime lenders are predatory: Coalition for Responsible Lending, "Quantifying the Economic Cost of Predatory Lending" 2001.

80% of sub-prime mortgages carry prepayment penalties: Coalition for Responsible Lending, "Quantifying the Economic Cost of Predatory Lending" 2001.

Number of pawnshops has increased by 142%: Ellen Seidman and Jennifer Tescher, "From Unbanked to Homeowner: Improving the Supply of Financial Services for Low-Income, Low-Asset Customers" 2004.

Households without checking and bank accounts: Joint Center for Housing Studies, Harvard University, "To Bank or Not to Bank: A Survey of Low Income Households," Christopher Berry, February 2004.

Check-cashing outlets in Chicago: Annie E. Casey Foundation 2000.

Check-cashing fees: "Ford Foundation Report," Fall 2004.

Payday lending outlets up by 11,000%: Michael Barr, "Banking the Poor" 2004.

Average interest rate on payday loan is more than 400%: Center for Responsible Lending, "Quantifying the Economic Cost of Predatory Payday Lending" 2004.

Rent-to-own stores avoid usury laws: New York City Department of Consumer Affairs Press Release, 2001.

Number of ATMs: Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco New ATM Study Details a Paradoxical Industry, December 2005.

Number of gambling machines: William N. Thompson, Professor, Department of Public Administration, University of Nevada, Las Vegas.

Brotherly Love?: "The Price is Wrong" Brookings Institution, April 2005.

Credit card late fees are 194% higher: Cardweb, "Late Fees" August 5, 2005.

Credit card balance: Demos and the Center for Responsible Lending, "The Plastic Safety Net" 2005.

$900 million on tax prep and check cashing fees: Consumer Federation of America Quick Tax Loans Skim Billions from Taxpayer Refunds, February 2006.

1 in 7 claim the EITC: IRS Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC) Program Effectiveness and Program Management FY 2002-03 August 2003.

IRS protected $3.1 billion in revenue: Mihir Desai, "The Divergence Between Book and Tax Income," October 2002.

Tension between rich and poor: New York Times May 15, 2005 Class Matters.

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