The Altered States of America: Sources

1619: "The Hemp Controversy: Can Industrial Hemp Save Kentucky?" Kentucky Law Journal, Susan David Dwyer, 1997; "Hemp in Colonial Virginia," Agricultural History, G.M. Herndon, Volume 37, No. 2, April 1963, p. 86-93; Hemp: American History Revisited, Robert Deitch, Algora Publishing, 2003, p. 16; Hemp Facts

1776: Cannabis: A History, Martin Booth, New York: St. Martin's Press, 2003, p. 42; Encyclopedia of World Environmental History, New York: Routledge Press, 2003, p. 523

1874: Woman's Christian Temperance Union

1875: Review of Reviews from June 5, 1892, Schaffer Library of Drug Policy; The Pursuit of Oblivion: A Global History of Narcotics, Richard Davenport-Hines, New York: WW Norton & Co, p. 126

1881: Prohibition in Kansas, Noah McFarland and Francis McCabe, Kansas House Publishing, 1889, p. 3.; Kansas State Historical Society Official Website: Temperance Timeline; The Use and Need of the Life of Carry A. Nation, Carry Amelia Nation, Steves & Sons, 1908; Kansas Historical Society on Carry Nation

1886: Coca-Cola Company; "Jim Crow's Drug War: Race, Coca Cola, and the Southern Origins of Drug Prohibition," Southern Cultures, Michael Cohen, Fall 2006, p. 55-79; For God, Country and Coca-Cola: A Definitive History of the Great American Soft Drink and the Company That Makes It, Mark Pendergrast, New York: Basic Books, 2000; "Coke's The One: The Centennial of the Ideal Brain Tonic That Became a Symbol of America," Southern Medical Journal, 1988; Mill Town: Coke and Dope; "Coca-Cola and Dope: An Etymology," American Speech, 1963

1903: "Cocaine Sniffers: Use of the Drug Increasing Among Negroes of the South," New-York Daily Tribune, June 21, 1903; Government and Public Health in America, Ronald Hamowy, 2007, p. 140

1914: Department of the Treasury: History of the Treasury Timeline

1914: William Randolph Hearst: The Later Years, Ben Proctor, Oxford University Press, 1998, p. 51; Phone interview with Friedrich Katz, Department of History at University of Chicago; The Origins of Cannabis Prohibition in California; Pipe dream blues: Racism and the War on Drugs, Dennis Desmond and Clarence Lusane, Boston: South End Press, 1991, p. 37; Hemp: American History Revisited, Robert Deitch, Algora Publishing, 2003, p. 86; "Gunboat Rescues Americans," New York Times, June 24, 1916

January 16, 1919: Archives of Constitutional Amendments; David J. Hanson, PhD, on Prohibition; Alcohol and Temperance in Modern History, ABC-CLIO, 2003, p. 593; Domesticating Drink, Catherine Murdock, JHU Press, 2002, p. 6; US Government's Volstead Act Educational Archives; Prohibition Party; Prejudice and the Old Politics, Allan Lichtman, p. 77, Lexington Books, 2000; Anxious Decades, Michael Parrish, WW Norton and Company, 1994, p. 96; Woman's World/Woman's Empire, Ian Tyrell, UNC Press, 1991, p. 20; The Constitutionalism of American States, University of Missouri Press, 2002; Red, White, and Brew: An American Beer Odyssey, Brian Yaeger, Macmillan, 2008; "The Wets and the Drys: Binary Images of Women and Alcohol in Popular Culture," Communication, Thelma McCormack, New York University, 1986, p. 43-64

1919-1933: Alcohol Prohibition Was a Failure; Albany Website on Prohibition; Federal statistics

1929: "The Forbidden Fruit and the Tree of Knowledge: An Inquiry Into the Legal History of American Marijuana Prohibition," Virginia Law Review, October 1970

1930: Report on Cocaine and Federal Sentencing Policy; Government Archives of the DEA; National Park Service: History

1932: Chronological History of US Foreign Relations, Lester Brune and Richard Dean Burns, New York: Routledge, 2003; More on Prohibition from David Hanson

December 5, 1933: Archives of Constitutional Amendments; Interview with David Kennedy at the John Jay College of Criminal Justice

1936: History of Reefer Madness

August 2, 1937: Franklin Roosevelt; Marihuana Tax Act of 1937

1942: Hemp for Victory on YouTube

1950s: The Murderers, Harry Anslinger and Will Oursler, Farrar, Straus & Cudahy, 1961; Editorial on Joe McCarthy; Jack Herer; Drug use, Policy, and Management, Richard Isralowitz, Greenwood Publishing Group, 2002, p. 133

1950s-1960s: GAO report on Human Experimentation: An Oversight on Cold War Era Programs, September 28, 1994, p. 6; Declassified MKULTRA Project Documents

January 14, 1967: Handbook of Addictive Disorders: A Practical Guide to Diagnosis and Treatment, Robert Coombs, Wiley Publishing, 2004, p. 15; The Politics of Ecstasy, Timothy Leary, Berkeley: Ronin Publishing, 1980; Sixties Radicals, Then and Now: Candid Conversations With Those Who Shaped the Era, Ron Chepesiuk, McFarland & Co., 1995, p. 147; Department of Justice on Leary

1968: Electric Kool-Aid Acid Test

September 1969: "Operation Intercept Continues," Rome News Tribune, September 29, 1969; "The International Challenge of Drug Abuse: The Mexican Experience," National Institute on Drug Abuse Report, Guido Belsasso; Consumers Report on Licit and Illicit Drugs

December 21, 1970: Elvis' letter to Nixon

June 17, 1971: Issues in Brief for Congress; War on Drugs: Legislation in the 108th Congress and Related Developments, April 14, 2003; Lies, Damned Lies, and Drug War Statistics, Matthew Robinson and Renee Scherlen, SUNY Press, 2007; Congressional Record, March 21, 2000; Rogue States: The Rule of Force in World Affairs, Noam Chomsky, South End Press: 2000; Interview with Dr. Jerome Jaffe

March 1972: The Report of the National Commission on Marihuana and Drug Abuse, Commissioned by President Nixon, March 1972; CSDP Research Report, March 2002

May 8, 1973: New York State Assembly leader Sheldon Silver on Rockefeller laws; Population Impact of Mass Incarceration Under New York's Rockefeller Drug Laws: An Analysis of Years of Life Lost, Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine, September 2002; Life on the Outside, Jennifer Gonnerman, Macmillan, 2005

July 1973: DEA history site

1975: Rockefeller Commission Report; Declassified MKULTRA docs; Senate hearing on MKULTRA

November 1975: Cocaine: An Unauthorized Biography, Dominic Streatfeild, Macmillan, 2003

1976: YouTube video of President Carter on decriminalizing marijuana

1977: Slowhand, Eric Clapton, 1977

April 26, 1977: Moon and Spoon: Studio 54

May 30, 1977: "The Cocaine Scene," Newsweek, Richard Steele, May 30, 1977

August 16, 1977: Elvis Site 1; Elvis Site 2; Elvis Site 3; Elvis Site 4

July 22, 1978: "Cocaine-Sniffing Incident," Washington Post; "Bourne Took Illegal Drug at Party, Witness Says," July 28, 1978; "The Wrong Rx for Peter Bourne," Time, July 31, 1978; The Quest for Drug Control, David Musto and Pamela Korsmeyer, Yale University Press, 2002

1982: Divorcing the Dictator: America's Bungled Affair With Noriega, Referick Kempe, I.B. Tauris, 1990

1982: Report to Congress on the Activities and Operations of the Public Integrity Section for 1985; "The Three US-Mexico Border Wars," Tony Payan, Praeger Security International General Interest, 2006; Sleepwalking Through History, Haynes Bonner Johnson, WW Norton and Co., 2003; "Puerto Rico Called New Entry Point for South American Drugs," Associated Press, September 2, 1984

October 9, 1982: "US Plans a New Drive on Narcotics," New York Times, October 9, 1982

1983: YouTube video of Nancy Reagan in the episode "The Reporter"

Mid-1980s: DEA History Book: 1985-1990

February 1985: Official DEA Biography; PBS War on Drugs Timeline; interview with former DEA administrator, Jack Lawn

September 12, 1985: "Cocaine Use in Pregnancy," Ira Chasnoff, New England Journal of Medicine, September 12, 1985

September 12, 1985: Crack Babies

September 12, 1985: Crack in America: Demon Drugs and Social Justice, Craig Reinarman and Harry Gene Levine, 1997

June 19, 1986: "Maryland Basketball Star Len Bias Is Dead at 22," Keith Harriston and Sally Jenkins, Washington Post, June 20, 1986; "10 Years Later, Bias's Death Still Resonates," David Nakamura and Mark Asher, Washington Post, June 19, 1996; "A Social History of America's Most Popular Drugs," PBS Frontline; "Len Bias - The Death That Ushered in Two Decades of Destruction," Peter Guither,, June 19, 2006; "Up in Smoke," Stephen J. Dubner and Steven D. Levitt, New York Times, August 7, 2005

October 27, 1986: "Thirty Years of America's Drug War," PBS Frontline; "The 1986 Anti-Drug Abuse Act," Families Against Mandatory Minimums; Rockefeller Drug Laws Information Sheet, Aaron D. Wilson, Partnership for Responsible Drug Information

1987: Carlos Salinas de Gortari, Encarta; "Man in The News; a Mexican on the Fast Track: Carlos Salinas de Gortari," Larry Rohter, New York Times, October 5, 1987; "The Comandante," Christine Biederman, Texas Monthly, July 1997; Raul Salinas, PBS Frontline

1987: "The Partnership's 'Fried Egg' TV Message," The Partnership for a Drug Free America, October 24, 2006

1988: Snitch: Informants, Cooperators and the Corruption of Justice, Ethan Brown, 2007; "What Is Addiction, and How Can We Treat It?," PBS Frontline

September 5, 1989: "Drug Buy Set Up For Bush Speech," Michael Isikoff, Washington Post, September 22, 1989; "White House Set Up Drug Buy in the Park for Bush TV Speech," Maureen Dowd, New York Times, September 23, 1989; Pipe Dream Blues: Racism and the War on Drugs , Clarence Lusane, 1991; "Mistrial Declared in Cocaine Arrest Near White House," Barton Gellman, Washington Post, December 22, 1989

December 1989: "Operation Just Cause," Ronald H. Cole, Joint History Office, 1995; "Operation Just Cause,"; "Narcotics Control Efforts in Panama," GAO Report, July 1991; "Fighting in Panama: The President; A Transcript of Bush's Address on the Decision to Use Force in Panama," New York Times, December 21, 1989

November 1992: John E. Hensley interview, PBS Frontline, 2000

December 1993: "Timeline: America's War on Drugs," NPR, April 2, 2007

1994: "New Mexico Drug Threat Assessment," National Drug Intelligence Center, April 2002; Border Games: Policing the US-Mexico Divide, Peter Andreas, 2001; "FTAA's Drug Deal," New American, September 6, 2004

1994: "The estimated number of arrests for drug abuse violations for adults has been increasing," Bureau of Justice Statistics; "The War on Drugs - A Peace Proposal," L. Grinspoon and J. B. Bakalar, New England Journal of Medicine, February 3, 1994

May 1995: "Interested Persons Memo on Crack/Powder Cocaine Sentencing Policy," American Civil Liberties Union, May 21, 2001; "Disapproval Of Sentencing Guideline Amendments Re: Crack Cocaine Including Dissenting View," Excerpts from House of Representatives Report, September 29, 1995

November 1995: "U.S. Drug Policy: Addicted to Failure," Mathea Falco, Foreign Policy; "Drug Plane Lands in Mexico and Is Unloaded, Possibly by Police," Sam Dillon, New York Times, November 30, 1995

1996: "The Colombian Cartels," PBS Frontline; "DTO 101: The Gulf Cartel," Mexico's Drug War

1996: "The Truth in 'Dark Alliance'," Nick Schou, Los Angeles Times, August 18, 2006; "The Sad Saga of Gary Webb," Susan Paterno, American Journalism Review, June/July 2005; "Gary Webb, of Controversial CIA/Crack Series, Dead in Apparent Suicide," Associated Press, December 12, 2004; "Total Coverage: The CIA, Contras, and Drugs," Eric Umansky, Mother Jones, August 25, 1998

1998: Reauthorization Act of 1998, Office of National Drug Control Policy, 1998

January 10, 1998: "Drugs Win Drug War," The Onion, January 10, 1998

1998-2000: "Congress Looks at Relationship Between Government, TV Networks," The Reporters Committee for Freedom of the Press, February 14, 2000; "Prime-Time Propaganda," Daniel Forbes, Salon, January 13, 2000

1999: Maps of Methamphetamine Lab Incidents, US Drug Enforcement Administration; "Mexico Security Memo: July 28, 2008," Stratfor Global Intelligence, July 28, 2008; "With U.S. Crackdowns, Meth Labs Proliferate in Mexico," Join Together, May 10, 2005; "Plunge in Meth Labs Paves Way for Potent Import," Howard Berkes, NPR, April 3, 2007; "Mexico Drug Use Soars as U.S. Meth Labs Shift South," Aline Corpus, Reuters, May 9, 2005; DEA Briefs: California 2008, US Drug Enforcement Administration; "Where Have All the Meth Labs Gone? South of the Border," Drugs-Forum, September 13, 2008

2000: "PLAN COLOMBIA: Drug Reduction Goals Were Not Fully Met, but Security Has Improved; U.S. Agencies Need More Detailed Plans for Reducing Assistance," GAO Report, October 2008

January 19, 2001: "Drug Smuggler Tops Mexico's Most Wanted List," Jason Beaubien, NPR, July 15, 2008; "Prison Employees Held in Probe Over Escaped Drug Trafficker," Associated Press, January 30, 2001; "Targeting Mexico's Drug Cartels: Is the Sinaloa Federation Next?" Stratfor Global Intelligence, November 30, 2007

February 3, 2002: Drugs and Drug Policy: The Control of Consciousness Alteration, Clayton James Mosher and Scott Akins, 2006; "The Persistence of Folly: ONDCP's Anti Drug Media Campaign," Common Sense for Drug Policy; "O&M Managing US Government's Anti-Drugs Propaganda," Corporate Watch, July 2002

2003: "Youth Illicit Drug Use Prevention: DARE Long-Term Evaluations and Federal Efforts to Identify Effective Programs," GAO Report, January 15, 2003

2004: "U.S. Counternarcotics Policy in Afghanistan: Time for Leadership," Statement of Michael A. Braun before the Committee on International Relations, US House of Representatives, March 17, 2005, US Drug Enforcement Administration; "U.S. Counternarcotics Policy in Afghanistan: Time for Leadership," Hearing before the Committee on International Relations, US House of Representatives, March 17, 2005; "Record Opium Crop in Southern Afghanistan," Richard Norton-Taylor, Guardian, June 27, 2007; "Second Record Level for Afghan Opium Crop," David Rohde, New York Times, August 28, 2007; "Record-Breaking Opium Crop Destabilizes Afghanistan," Jon Hemming, Reuters, August 25, 2007

February 25, 2004: "Physicians, Scientists to Media: Stop Using the Term 'Crack Baby,'" Join Together, February 25, 2004

2005: "Fact Sheet: The Impact of United States v. Booker on Federal Sentencing," US Drug Enforcement Administration, March 15, 2005; United States v. Booker, Supreme Court of the United States, 2005; "Final Report on the Impact of United States v. Booker On Federal Sentencing," US Sentencing Commission, March 15, 2005

June 2005: "An Open Letter to the President, Congress, Governors, and State Legislatures," Prohibition Costs, June 2005; "Budgetary Implications of Marijuana Prohibition in the US," Prohibition Costs, June 2005

December 2006: "Mexico's Drug War Takes to the Barricades," Ioan Grillo, Time, February 19, 2009; "Mexico at War: On the Front Lines," William Booth, Steve Fainaru, and Travis Fox, Washington Post, April 2, 2009

March 2007: "Development of a Rational Scale to Assess the Harm of Drugs of Potential Misuse," David Nutt, The Lancet, March 2007; "Alcohol, Tobacco Make Top 10 List of Risky Drugs," Associated Press, March 24, 2007; "Alcohol, Tobacco Worse Than Illegal Drugs?" Scott Conroy, Associated Press, March 24, 2007

2008: Remarks on the House floor by Howard L. Berman (D-Calif.), Chairman of the House Foreign Affairs Committee, on his Legislation H.R. 6028, authorizing the Merida Initiative, June 10, 2008; "U.S. Merida Aid Initiative Angers Some in Mexico," Ken Ellingwood, Los Angeles Times, June 05, 2008; "Plan Mexico," Laura Carlsen, Foreign Policy in Focus, October 30, 2007; "US Congress Approves Anti-Drug Aid for Mexico, Central America," AFP, June 2008

January 2009: "Paterson Once Arrested Over Rockefeller Drug Law Reform," Irene Jay Liu, Times Union, January 8, 2009; "New York's Rockefeller Drug Laws," Madison Gray, Time, April 2, 2009

March 2009: "#701 Joaquin Guzman Loera," Forbes, March 11, 2009

March 2009: "Taking on the Narcos, and Their American Guns," The Economist, April 2, 2009; "Suman 10 Mil 475 Ejecuciones en Esta Administracion: PGR," María de la Luz Gonzalez, El Universal, March 25, 2009; "Over 10,000 Dead: Is Mexican Drug War Violence Ebbing?" Kristin Bricker, The Narcosphere, April 17, 2009

March 11, 2009: "Seattle Police Chief Selected as Drug Czar," David Stout, New York Times, March 11, 2009; "Obama to Name Seattle Police Chief as Drug Czar," Reuters, March 11, 2009; "Seattle Police Chief Is Obama's Drug Czar Choice," MSNBC, March 11, 2009

May 13, 2009: "White House Czar Calls for End to 'War on Drugs,'" Gary Fields, Wall Street Journal, May 14, 2009; "Abolishing The War On Drugs," Chris Good, The Atlantic, May 14, 2009


DEA History: 75-80

DEA History: 80-85

DEA History Book: 85-90