MoJo Author Feeds: Tim McDonnell | Mother Jones http://www.motherjones.com/rss/authors/116771 http://www.motherjones.com/files/motherjonesLogo_google_206X40.png Mother Jones logo http://www.motherjones.com en We Are Making Ebola Outbreaks Worse by Cutting Down Forests http://www.motherjones.com/environment/2014/07/we-are-making-ebola-worse <!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.0 Transitional//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/REC-html40/loose.dtd"> <html><body><p>In a relentless sweep across Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone, the largest outbreak of Ebola, a virus that causes dramatic internal bleeding and often a hasty death, has now claimed 467 lives, from 759 infections, since February this year, <a href="http://www.afro.who.int/en/clusters-a-programmes/dpc/epidemic-a-pandemic-alert-and-response/outbreak-news/4214-ebola-virus-disease-west-africa-1-july-2014.html">according to the World Health Organization</a> (WHO).&nbsp;</p> <p>With victims identified across more than 60 different locations, there's now a very real risk the outbreak will spread to even more countries, says M&eacute;decins Sans Fronti&egrave;res (MSF), which calls the epidemic <a href="http://www.msf.org/article/ebola-west-africa-epidemic-requires-massive-deployment-resources">out of control</a>.</p> <p>WHO is now focusing on preparing for the disease's inevitable spread to neighboring countries, not a small ask in poor countries with poor health care systems. "We want other countries in West Africa to be ready&mdash;bordering countries, Ivory Coast, Mali, Senegal, Guinea Bissau&mdash;to prepare themselves in case people affected with the disease may be also traveling," WHO's Dr. Pierre Formenty told <a href="http://af.reuters.com/article/maliNews/idAFL6N0P82C620140627">a recent briefing in Geneva.</a></p> <div class="inline inline-left" style="display: table; width: 1%"><a href="http://motherjones.com/files/guinea-liberia-sierra-leone-2014-current.jpg" target="_blank"><img alt="" class="image" src="/files/guinea-liberia-sierra-leone-2014-current.jpg" style="height: 323px; width: 275px;"></a> <div class="caption"><strong>Ebola hemorrhagic fever outbreak in Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone, 2014. <a href="http://motherjones.com/files/guinea-liberia-sierra-leone-2014-current.jpg" target="_blank">Click to see a bigger version</a>.&nbsp;</strong>Centers for Disease Control and Prevention</div> </div> <p>In Ivory Coast, Guinea and Liberia's neighbor to the east, federal health officials have joined customs agents at the notoriously porous border in the hope of stopping the disease's spread; meanwhile, MSF has set up isolation centers nearby to contain infected persons if they do appear, says Anne Cugier, MSF's mission chief in that country.&nbsp;"We are all concerned about Ebola potentially spreading to Ivory Coast," she said. &nbsp;</p> <p>But Ebola is an elusive and very effective assassin, leaving scientists floundering to fit the pieces of the virology puzzle together. The science behind how and why Ebola spreads has yet to be fully nailed down&mdash;there's very little surveillance of the early stages of the disease deep in the African forests, where the disease may have been circulating in animals for a long time before "first contact" with humans.&nbsp;In this particular outbreak, it appears that the first diagnosed case was a doctor in the rural town of Gueckedou, whose infection then <a href="http://globalhealth.thelancet.com/2014/04/03/ebola-guinea-people-patterns-and-puzzles">spread to health workers and family attending his funeral</a>.</p> <p><a href="http://www.ghjournal.org/jgh-print/spring-2011-issue/ebola-emerging-the-limitations-of-culturalist-discourses-in-epidemiology/">Researchers believe</a> that butchering and eating infected "bushmeat"&mdash;a bat or gorilla, for example&mdash;usually serves as the first exposure to diseased animal blood.</p> <p>Then, ritual funeral rites that involve rubbing down of dead bodies before interment bring relatives and others close to contaminated body fluids, after which Ebola's attack is swift and fatal in up to 90 percent of cases. Symptoms may appear anywhere from 2 to 21 days and include vomiting, diarrhea, and internal bleeding. Unlike the flu, Ebola is not airborne, so you can't get it from an infected person coughing or sneezing near you.</p> <p>In Ivory Coast, the risk of Ebola transmission from&nbsp;bushmeat, which is a popular menu item at rural&nbsp;<em style="line-height: 24px;">maquis</em>&mdash;roadside outdoor grills&mdash;is&nbsp;considered high enough by federal health officials that it was recently banned altogether. But&nbsp;according to my colleague Tim McDonnell, who is in the country right now, there is no way to enforce the ban, and&nbsp;bushmeat&nbsp;is still being sold and eaten.</p> <p>What is becoming clearer, however, is that human activity is playing a major role in the initial outbreaks of these zoonotic diseases&mdash;those that jump between animal and human&mdash;like Ebola. Humans are venturing farther and farther into forests, putting more and more pressure on local ecosystems through small-scale gold and diamond mining, deforestation, and conflict. In remote West Africa, where human populations meet the forests, people are increasingly coming into contact with animals, and that, combined with traditional hunting practices, is driving up the risk of a "spillover" occurring, where Ebola can leap across species.</p> <p>"I think there are lots of instances of human activities driving spillovers and outbreaks," says<a href="http://www.ecohealthalliance.org/about/experts/10-epstein"> Dr. Jonathan Epstein</a>, a veterinary epidemiologist and Ebola expert with EcoHealth Alliance, an international organization of scientists that studies biodiversity and conservation. "While some of these things may be cultural traditions that have persisted for a long time," he says, "some of them are activities that are relatively newer, but intensifying."</p> <p><strong>Deforestation</strong><br><a href="https://www.ids.ac.uk/person/melissa-leach">Melissa Leach</a>, the director of the&nbsp;University of Sussex's Institute of Development Studies, lived for several years in the border forests of Guinea where this latest outbreak first began. She says the forest landscape there is complex and ever-changing&mdash;a "mosaic." Villages here are surrounded by forest and agriculture, and that means bats&mdash;thought to carry Ebola&mdash;are everywhere. "I lived in a house in a village in Kissidougou district for two years which was full of bats in its roof," she says.</p> <p>Human activity is driving bats to find new habitats amongst human populations. More than half of Liberia's forests&mdash;home to 40 endangered species, including the western chimpanzee&mdash;have been sold off to industrial loggers during President Ellen Johnson Sirleaf's post-war government, according to figures<a href="http://www.theguardian.com/global-development/2012/jul/05/liberia-forest-sell-off-risks-conflict"> released by Global Witness</a>. Logging, slash-and-burn agriculture, and chopping down trees for an increased demand for fire wood are all driving deforestation in Sierra Leone, where total forest cover has now dropped to just 4 percent, <a href="http://postconflict.unep.ch/publications/Sierra_Leone.pdf">according to the United Nations Environment Programme</a> (UNEP) which says if deforestation continues at current levels, Sierra Leone's forests could disappear altogether by 2018.</p> <p>"We see deforestation or incursion into forests, whether it's through hunting or just alteration of landscape, causing people and wildlife to have more contact," says Epstein.</p> <p><strong>Mining</strong></p> <p>The 1994 outbreak of Ebola, which<a href="http://www.cdc.gov/vhf/ebola/resources/outbreak-table.html"> killed 31 people</a>, occurred in gold mining camps deep in the rain forest. Mining also appears to be a feature of this latest outbreak: Its epicenter is in the south east of Guinea, close to iron ore reserves, according to <u><a href="http://www.reuters.com/article/2014/04/02/us-guinea-ebola-idUSBREA3125920140402">Reuters</a></u>.</p> <p>Mining "has become a big livelihood activity across the regions, Sierra Leone, Liberia, Guinea, as of the last couple of decades," says Leach. And that means more mines in the forest, but also "immense movement: people going seasonally in and out of mines, coming in and out, young people coming from all over the country." Guinea is the world's<a href="http://www.reuters.com/article/2014/04/02/us-guinea-ebola-idUSBREA3125920140402"> top exporter of bauxite</a>, the raw material used in aluminum production, according to Reuters.</p> <p>"That whole sense of movement is something that means that a disease, an outbreak, once established in a place, is very likely not to stay in that place; it tends to move quite quickly," Leach says.</p> <p>Iron ore mining boomed in Libera last year, for example, after a surge in public and private investment. <a href="http://www.bloomberg.com/news/2014-06-27/liberia-central-bank-sees-growth-slowing-as-mining-output-eases.html">According to Bloomberg</a>, the nation gets most of its income from mining with several major international players in the market, alongside smaller gold and diamond mines. The international Monetary Fund said mining spurred a<a href="http://www.reuters.com/article/2014/04/03/leone-imf-gdp-idUSL5N0MV37J20140403"> 20 percent growth in GDP</a> in Sierra Leone in 2013, after a flood of investment from British companies in iron ore.</p> <p><strong>War</strong><br> Conflict is also driving humans into forested areas. Survivors of Sierra Leone's civil war, which ended in the early 2000s, hid and slept in the forest,<a href="http://www.hrw.org/reports/2003/sierraleone/sierleon0103.pdf"> according to Human Rights Watch</a>. The movements of refugees have had a lasting impact, says Leach. "There is still a lot of cross-border interaction of people through contacts that were established in the post-war period," she says. A 2010 UNEP <a href="http://postconflict.unep.ch/publications/Sierra_Leone.pdf">report</a> on post-war Sierra Leone also says that in the post-war years, people in this region have become increasingly reliant on the forest animals for food, and wood from trees for fuel and building materials.</p> <div class="inline inline-left" style="display: table; width: 1%"><img alt="" class="image" src="/files/AP950526065.jpg" style="height: 179px; width: 275px; float: right;"><div class="caption"><strong>Red Cross volunteers carry a coffin containing the remains of an Ebola victim in Kikwit, Zaire (now Democratic Republic of the Congo) in 1995. That&nbsp;outbreak claimed 250 lives. </strong>David Guttenfelder/AP Photo</div> </div> <p><strong>Climate change</strong><br> West African countries are already feeling the effects of climate change, the International Food Policy Research Institute noted <a href="http://www.ifpri.org/sites/default/files/publications/rr178ch12.pdf">in a report published last year</a>. There are now more "seasonal droughts, strong winds, thunderstorms, landslides, heat waves, floods, and changed rainfall patterns." All that is changing the forests where Ebola first begins to take hold.</p> <p>Dry conditions can cause fires, which fragment forests, says Leach. That splitting up of forest increases the likelihood that bats will try to find other places to live, sometimes amongst human populations. Dr. William Karesh, another EcoAlliance epidemiologist, says it's also possible that increasingly frequent extreme weather events also may also play a role in predicting Ebola, but he warns that much of the picture is still left to be filled in by scientists.</p> <p>Karesh's colleague Jonathan Epstein agrees. "Probably over time wildlife will have to shift habitat or territory in response to changes in food availability or habitat suitability that may in fact may be influenced by climate change," he says. But "as of now there's no real strong direct link."</p> <p><strong>Ebola in the United States?</strong><br> In&nbsp;<a href="http://www.cdc.gov/vhf/ebola/resources/outbreak-table.html" target="_blank">1989</a>, Ebola was detected in <span style="font-family: Verdana, Arial, sans-serif; line-height: 24px;">monkeys imported from the Philippines&nbsp;</span>at quarantine facilities in Virginia and Pennsylvania, with no human patients. <span style="font-family: Verdana, Arial, sans-serif; line-height: 24px;">The following year,&nbsp;t</span>he same thing happened again&nbsp;in Virginia&nbsp;and Texas. F<span style="font-family: Verdana, Arial, sans-serif; line-height: 24px;">our humans developed antibodies, but did not get sick</span>. And then again in 1996 in Texas, monkeys from the Philippines were found to have Ebola, but yet again there were no human infections.</p> <p>In theory, the current outbreak could could make its way to American soil, most likely via a traveler exposed in West Africa arriving at a US airport, but it's unlikely that its&nbsp;damage would be widespread, says Epstein. That's because of good public health systems that monitor and control diseases in the United States. But where any threat exists, "it speaks to the importance of containing and controlling the outbreak where it's happening, in the countries of origin,"&nbsp;he says.</p></body></html> Environment Climate Change Climate Desk Health Top Stories Mon, 07 Jul 2014 10:00:14 +0000 James West and Tim McDonnell 255436 at http://www.motherjones.com Our Inability to Deal With Climate Change Is Going to Kill the Penguins http://www.motherjones.com/environment/2014/06/climate-change-will-kill-emperor-penguins <!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.0 Transitional//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/REC-html40/loose.dtd"> <html><body><p>Move over, polar bears: It's time for Emperor penguins to become the new poster children of climate change.</p> <p>Recently, polar biologists at the University of Minnesota used satellite images of <a href="http://www.foxnews.com/science/2014/06/24/poop-stains-reveal-penguins-migrate-with-climate/" target="_blank">poop stains</a> (scientists are nothing if not resourceful) to show that some colonies of Emperor penguins in Antarctica are <a href="http://www.cbsnews.com/news/emperor-penguins-may-be-moving-due-to-climate-change-study-finds/" target="_blank">uprooting historic nesting sites,</a> possibly to escape warming temperatures.</p> <div class="inline inline-left" style="display: table; width: 1%"><img alt="penguin vertical" class="image" src="/files/penguin-vertical-300_0.jpg"><div class="caption">Courtesy Stephanie Jenouvrier</div> </div> <p>Today, a new <a href="http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nclimate2280" target="_blank">study</a> in <em>Nature</em> makes an even more grim prognostication about the future of the species: Thanks to declining concentrations of sea ice, two-thirds of Antarctica's Emperor penguin colonies could lose more than half their population by 2100. Across the entire species, that translates to a 19 percent drop. Some colonies are larger than others, so a 50 percent decline in one group might be only a few individuals, while the same change in a larger group could be hundreds.</p> <p>Less sea ice makes it more difficult to access krill, the tiny shrimp-like crustaceans that are the penguins' primary food source, said study coauthor Julienne Stroeve, a researcher at the National Snow &amp; Ice Data Center. "Then, there are these large mortality rates for the penguins."</p> <p>So just how many penguins are we talking about here? A <a href="http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2012/04/120413-emperor-penguins-survey-antarctica-animals-space-science/" target="_blank">satellite survey</a> in 2012 pegged the total head count at 595,000 across 45 colonies. A 19 percent decline would reduce the population to 481,950, or a loss of 113,050 adorable birds.</p> <p>Scientists have long known that animals at the poles are <a href="http://www.theguardian.com/environment/2005/oct/19/frontpagenews.climatechange" target="_blank">especially vulnerable</a> to global warming, which is happening in the Arctic and Antarctica faster than the rest of the world. In the Arctic, disappearing ice and rising temperatures are pushing species of whales, seals, and bears to hybridize, <a href="http://nautil.us/issue/14/mutation/a-strange-new-gene-pool-of-animals-is-brewing-in-the-arctic" target="_blank">jeopardizing their genetic health</a>. In Antarctica, <a href="http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0072246" target="_blank">earlier research</a> has found that ocean warming could reduce the habitat available for krill by 20 percent, compounding the sea ice problem.</p> <div class="inline inline-right" style="display: table; width: 1%"><img alt="puffin" class="image" src="/files/puffin225.jpg"><div class="caption"><strong>Earlier this year we explained the <a href="http://www.motherjones.com/environment/2014/04/gulf-maine-puffin-climate-change" target="_blank">dangers that climate change pose for baby Puffins</a> in the Gulf of Maine.</strong></div> </div> <p>Today's study is just the latest reminder of the vital role ice plays in the Antarctic ecosystem. And there's little doubt that Antarctica's ice is in serious trouble: Earlier this year a trove of research emerged indicating that one of the continent's major ice sheets is already in <a href="http://www.motherjones.com/environment/2014/05/west-antarctic-ice-sheet-collapse" target="_blank">irreversible decline</a>.</p> <p>The map below, from the study, shows which penguin populations are most at risk. The purple-to-white color gradient shows changes in mean sea ice concentration between the twentieth and twenty-first centuries (it's a bit counter-intuitive; purple is the least decline and white is the most). Each colored dot is a penguin colony, with the color indicating the colonies' projected conservation status (see key below) by 2100. You can see that the most-threatened populations (red dots) are those nearest to the white space where sea ice has declined the most.</p> <div class="inline inline-center" style="display: table; width: 1%"><img alt="penguin map" class="image" src="/files/penguin-map_0.jpg"><div class="caption">Courtesy Nature</div> </div></body></html> Environment Animals Climate Change Climate Desk Science Top Stories Mon, 30 Jun 2014 10:00:10 +0000 Tim McDonnell 254751 at http://www.motherjones.com These Maps Show How Many Brutally Hot Days You Will Suffer When You're Old http://www.motherjones.com/blue-marble/2014/06/how-many-really-hot-days-there-will-be-time-you-are-old <!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.0 Transitional//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/REC-html40/loose.dtd"> <html><body><div class="inline inline-center" style="display: table; width: 1%"><img alt="" class="image" src="/files/DaysOver95-MJ.jpg"><div class="caption">Risky Business</div> </div> <p>One of the main difficulties in getting people to care about climate change is that it can be hard to notice on a daily basis. But the prospect of sweating profusely through your golden years? That's more arresting.</p> <p>If you're aged 4 to 33 right now, the map above shows you how many very hot days&mdash;those with temperatures over 95 degrees Fahrenheit&mdash;you're likely to experience by the time you're elderly. It comes from a <a href="http://riskybusiness.org/index.php?p=about" target="_blank">new report</a> by the economics research firm Rhodium Group, which was commissioned by former New York City Mayor Michael Bloomberg; Henry Paulson, the Republican Treasury secretary under George W. Bush; and Tom Steyer, the billionaire Bay Area entrepreneur and&nbsp;environmentalist.&nbsp;</p></body></html> <p style="font-size: 1.083em;"><a href="/blue-marble/2014/06/how-many-really-hot-days-there-will-be-time-you-are-old"><strong><em>Continue Reading &raquo;</em></strong></a></p> Blue Marble Charts Climate Change Climate Desk Science Tue, 24 Jun 2014 16:14:10 +0000 Tim McDonnell 254676 at http://www.motherjones.com There Are 1,401 Uninspected High-Risk Oil and Gas Wells. Here's Where They Are. http://www.motherjones.com/environment/2014/06/uninspected-oil-gas-wells-map <!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.0 Transitional//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/REC-html40/loose.dtd"> <html><body><p>Johnson County, Wyoming, is the kind of remote, quiet Western community where <a href="http://beefmagazine.com/ranch-management/wyoming-sees-uptick-cattle-theft" target="_blank">life revolves around cattle</a>&mdash;it was the site of an infamous 19th-century <a href="http://www.wyohistory.org/essays/johnson-county-war" target="_blank">armed battle</a> between cowboys and suspected cattle rustlers. The county ranks only <a href="http://trib.com/oil-production-by-county/pdf_0e1cf0e5-53a9-52a6-a37b-45e634d194b3.html" target="_blank">11th statewide</a> for oil production, but it holds the No. 1 ranking <em>nationwide</em> for a more ignominious distinction: It has 249 new, high-risk oil and gas wells that the federal government has failed to inspect for compliance with safety and environmental standards.</p> <p>Johnson County may have the most uninspected wells, but it's far from the only place where the problem exists. In fact, of all 3,486 oil and gas wells drilled on federal and Native American land from 2009 to 2012 that were identified by the Bureau of Land Management as high risk for pollution, 40 percent were not inspected at the most important stage of their development, according to records the BLM provided to Climate Desk.</p> <p>"In a perfect world, we'd love to get to all those wells," said Steven Wells, chief of the BLM's Fluid Minerals Division. "Unfortunately we've been fighting an uphill battle. We hope that at some point we'll be able to catch up."</p> <p>The map and chart below identify where these wells are located, by county:</p> <div class="inline inline-center" style="display: table; width: 1%"><img alt="" class="image" src="/files/blm_map_by_hand_5.jpg"></div> <p>&nbsp;</p></body></html> <p style="font-size: 1.083em;"><a href="/environment/2014/06/uninspected-oil-gas-wells-map"><strong><em>Continue Reading &raquo;</em></strong></a></p> Environment Interactives Maps Climate Change Climate Desk Energy Regulatory Affairs Top Stories Infrastructure Mon, 23 Jun 2014 10:00:07 +0000 Tim McDonnell and AJ Vicens 254231 at http://www.motherjones.com This Is How Much America Spends Putting Out Wildfires http://www.motherjones.com/environment/2014/06/shirley-fire-budget-climate-change <!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.0 Transitional//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/REC-html40/loose.dtd"> <html><body><p>The central California wildfire that yesterday <a href="http://www.weather.com/news/fire-kern-county-california-20140615" target="_blank">destroyed three homes and forced hundreds of evacuations</a> is just the latest blaze to strain the nation's overburdened federal firefighting system. By <a href="http://inciweb.nwcg.gov/incident/3895/" target="_blank">Monday evening</a> the Shirley Fire had consumed 2,600 acres near Sequoia National Forest and cost more than $4 million, as some 1,000 firefighters scrambled to contain it. (It's now 75 percent contained.) Meanwhile, families on an Arizona Navajo reservation are <a href="http://www.koat.com/news/assayi-fire-burns-450-acres-near-gallup/26503736#!Z5qHJ" target="_blank">being evacuated today</a> in the face of an <a href="http://inciweb.nwcg.gov/incident/3899/" target="_blank">11,000-acre blaze</a> that as of Tuesday morning was zero percent contained.</p> <p>This year, in the midst of <a href="http://www.motherjones.com/environment/2014/02/california-drought-matters-more-just-california" target="_blank">severe drought</a> across the West, top wildfire managers in Washington knew they were going to <a href="http://www.motherjones.com/blue-marble/2014/05/wildfires-budget-climate-change" target="_blank">break the bank</a>, even before the fire season had really begun. In early May, officials at the US Department of Agriculture (which oversees the Forest Service) and the Department of Interior announced that wildfire-fighting costs this summer are projected to run roughly $400 million over budget. Since then, wildfires on federal land have burned at least a half-million acres, and the Forest Service has made plans to beef up its force of over 100 aircraft and 10,000 firefighters in preparation for what it said in a statement "is shaping up to be a catastrophic fire season."</p> <p>But the real catastrophe has been years in the making: Federal fire records and budget data show that the US wildfire response system is chronically and severely underfunded, even as fires&mdash;especially the biggest "megafires"&mdash;grow larger and more expensive.&nbsp;In other words, the federal government is not keeping pace with America's rapidly evolving wildfire landscape. This year's projected budget shortfall is actually par for the course; in fact, since 2002, the United States has overspent its wildfire fighting budget every year except one&mdash;in three of those years by nearly a billion dollars.</p> <div class="inline inline-center" style="display: table; width: 1%"><img alt="fire budget" class="image" src="/files/chart1_4.jpg"><div class="caption">Tim McDonnell</div> </div></body></html> <p style="font-size: 1.083em;"><a href="/environment/2014/06/shirley-fire-budget-climate-change"><strong><em>Continue Reading &raquo;</em></strong></a></p> Environment Charts Climate Change Climate Desk Science Top Stories Tue, 17 Jun 2014 10:00:09 +0000 Tim McDonnell 253436 at http://www.motherjones.com How Much Cleaner Will Obama's Climate Rules Make Your State? http://www.motherjones.com/blue-marble/2014/06/heres-how-much-epa-wants-your-state-clean <!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.0 Transitional//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/REC-html40/loose.dtd"> <html><body><p>Yesterday the Environmental Protection Agency rolled out the centerpiece of President Obama's climate strategy&mdash;a plan to limit carbon dioxide emissions from the nation's power plants. The main takeaway was that by 2030 the regulations will cut these emissions, the biggest single driver of global warming, by 30 percent compared to 2005 levels. But under the hood, things get a little more complex.</p> <p>Rather than a consistent national standard, the proposed rule sets a different standard for every state, based on the EPA's assessment of what each state can realistically achieve using existing technology at a reasonable cost. The goal applies to a state's carbon intensity, the measure of how much carbon pollution comes from each unit of electricity produced in that state, rather than total carbon emissions. States like Kentucky and West Virginia, for example, rely heavily on coal power and have a higher carbon intensity than states like California that are more energy-efficient and have more renewable energy. By 2030, each state will be required to meet a carbon intensity target lower than where it is today; how much lower, exactly, depends on what the EPA thinks the state can pull off.</p> <p>States will have broad leeway to devise individual plans to meet their targets, which could include installing air-scrubbing technology on plants themselves, adopting more robust energy efficiency standards, or switching from coal to cleaner sources like natural gas or renewables.</p> <p>Here's a ranking of which states will have to shrink their carbon footprint the most:</p> <div class="inline inline-center" style="display: table; width: 1%"><img alt="required cuts" class="image" src="/files/state-cuts-MJ1_1.jpg"><div class="caption">Tim McDonnell</div> </div></body></html> <p style="font-size: 1.083em;"><a href="/blue-marble/2014/06/heres-how-much-epa-wants-your-state-clean"><strong><em>Continue Reading &raquo;</em></strong></a></p> Blue Marble Charts Climate Change Climate Desk Energy Regulatory Affairs Top Stories Infrastructure Tue, 03 Jun 2014 18:15:05 +0000 Tim McDonnell 253216 at http://www.motherjones.com Live Coverage: Obama Takes His Boldest Step Ever to Fight Climate Change http://www.motherjones.com/environment/2014/06/obama-climate-epa-power-plants-regulations <!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.0 Transitional//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/REC-html40/loose.dtd"> <html><body><div class="storify"><iframe allowtransparency="true" frameborder="no" height="750" src="//storify.com/TheClimateDesk/live-blog-obama-s-signature-climate-policy-announc/embed?header=false&amp;border=false" width="100%"></iframe><script src="//storify.com/TheClimateDesk/live-blog-obama-s-signature-climate-policy-announc.js?header=false&amp;border=false"></script><noscript>[<a href="//storify.com/TheClimateDesk/live-blog-obama-s-signature-climate-policy-announc" target="_blank">View the story "Live Blog: Obama's Signature Climate Policy Announced" on Storify</a>]</noscript></div></body></html> Environment Climate Change Climate Desk Top Stories Infrastructure Mon, 02 Jun 2014 13:42:12 +0000 Tim McDonnell, James West, Jeremy Schulman, and Chris Mooney 253131 at http://www.motherjones.com Obama's New Plan to Fight Climate Change Is a Really Big Deal http://www.motherjones.com/environment/2014/05/obama-carbon-rules-coal-plants-climate-epa-climate-plan-explainer <!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.0 Transitional//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/REC-html40/loose.dtd"> <html><body><p><em><strong>Update<strong>, Monday, June 2, 9:45 a.m. EDT: </strong></strong>You can check out our live coverage of the announcement and reaction to the proposed power plant regulations <a href="http://www.motherjones.com/environment/2014/06/obama-climate-epa-power-plants-regulations" target="_blank">here</a>.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Update, Sunday, June 1, 6:30 p.m. EDT: </em></strong><em>The </em>Wall Street Journal<em> is <a href="http://online.wsj.com/articles/epa-power-plant-proposal-will-seek-30-carbon-dioxide-emissions-cut-by-2030-sources-1401650325" target="_blank">reporting</a> that on Monday the EPA will announce sweeping new limits on carbon dioxide pollution from the nation's existing power plants. The plan is said to require a nationwide reduction in carbon emissions by an average of 30 percent over 2005 levels by 2030, with different specific targets for each state. </em><em>The rules, which will have a one-year public review period before becoming final, could represent one of the biggest actions taken by the US government to slow climate change.</em></p> <p>On Monday, President Obama is set to unveil details of the cornerstone of his climate plan: Limits on carbon dioxide emissions from the nation's fleet of existing power plants. The rules are likely to be the biggest step toward the president's <a href="http://www.vox.com/cards/obama-climate-plan/why-does-obama-want-to-cut-u-s-emissions-17-by-2020" target="_blank">goal of cutting US greenhouse gas emissions</a> 17 percent by 2020. The rules are already taking heat from the fossil fuel industry and <a href="http://www.law360.com/articles/541617/epa-should-halt-power-plant-rules-gop-senators-say" target="_blank">Republicans in Congress</a>, despite having <a href="http://environment.yale.edu/climate-communication/article/americans-support-limits-on-co2/" target="_blank">the support of a majority</a> of Americans. So what's all the hullabaloo about, exactly? Here's what you need to know:</p> <p><strong>Why regulate carbon dioxide emissions from power plants?</strong> By now it's well established that carbon dioxide from human activities is the single biggest driver of climate change. The news this month that severe glacial melting in Antarctica has <a href="http://www.motherjones.com/environment/2014/05/west-antarctic-ice-sheet-collapse" target="_blank">already nearly guaranteed up to 10 feet of global sea level rise</a> was just the latest reminder of the dire need to slash our carbon pollution. Power plants and vehicles are the two biggest sources of this pollution in the United States, accounting for about 38 and 31 percent of <a href="http://www.epa.gov/climatechange/Downloads/ghgemissions/US-GHG-Inventory-2013-Main-Text.pdf" target="_blank">carbon emissions</a>, respectively. The Obama administration has already taken aim at motor vehicles; it placed new emissions limits on <a href="http://www.theguardian.com/world/2009/may/19/obama-carbon-emissions-auto-industry" target="_blank">cars</a> in 2009 and ordered them for <a href="http://www.nytimes.com/2014/02/19/us/politics/obama-to-request-new-rules-for-cutting-truck-pollution.html" target="_blank">heavy-duty trucks</a> this year. But there are currently no restrictions&mdash;at all&mdash;on how much carbon pollution the nation's existing fleet of power plants can produce.</p> <p>In the United States, as in many countries, the single biggest source of electricity is also the dirtiest: Domestic coal-fired plants produced 1.45 billion metric tons of CO<sub>2</sub> in 2012, according to <a href="http://www.epa.gov/airmarkets/images/CoalUnitCharacteristics2012.xls" target="_blank">Environmental Protection Agency data</a>, equal to about 305 million cars. That's more than 67 percent of the power sector's total carbon emissions, even though coal accounts for just 37 percent of the energy mix. Put another way, coal-burning power plants in America alone exceed the total carbon emissions of <a href="http://www.eia.gov/cfapps/ipdbproject/iedindex3.cfm?tid=90&amp;pid=44&amp;aid=8" target="_blank">Central and South America</a>.</p> <p>Limiting emissions could also have benefits beyond slowing climate change: A <a href="http://eng-cs.syr.edu/wp-content/uploads/2014/05/EMBARGOED-Press-Release_Co-Benefits-Study-5.27.pdf" target="_blank">study</a> released this week by public health researchers at Harvard and Syracuse universities found that controlling the amount of carbon released by power plants also cut down on emissions of toxic pollutants like sulfur dioxide and mercury, which contribute to asthma, heart disease, and other serious health impacts&mdash;not to mention that sulfur dioxide causes acid rain.</p> <p>America's carbon emissions have <a href="http://www.eia.gov/totalenergy/data/monthly/pdf/mer.pdf" target="_blank">declined from their 2007 peak</a>, and last fall the EPA <a href="http://www.motherjones.com/environment/2013/09/epa-carbon-kill-coal" target="_blank">issued rules</a> for power plants that could prevent many (or any) <a href="http://www.motherjones.com/environment/2014/03/carbon-capture-coal-plant-EPA-mississippi" target="_blank">new coal plants</a> from being built. (For the time being, thanks to the fracking boom,&nbsp;cheap natural gas has made construction of new coal plants unlikely for economic reasons.) With next week's rule, the EPA is looking to fill in the deepest part of America's carbon footprint.</p></body></html> <p style="font-size: 1.083em;"><a href="/environment/2014/05/obama-carbon-rules-coal-plants-climate-epa-climate-plan-explainer"><strong><em>Continue Reading &raquo;</em></strong></a></p> Environment Climate Change Climate Desk Energy Regulatory Affairs Top Stories Infrastructure Fri, 30 May 2014 10:00:13 +0000 Tim McDonnell 252846 at http://www.motherjones.com VIDEO: Is the BP Oil Spill Cleanup Still Making People Sick? http://www.motherjones.com/blue-marble/2014/05/bp-oil-spill-cleanup-still-making-people-sick <!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.0 Transitional//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/REC-html40/loose.dtd"> <html><body><p><iframe allowfullscreen="" frameborder="0" height="354" src="//www.youtube.com/embed/wLzacnH3u50" width="630"></iframe></p> <p>After the 2010 Deepwater Horizon disaster, when an oil rig explosion sent five million barrels of oil gushing into the Gulf of Mexico, the company behind the spill, BP, <a href="http://www.motherjones.com/environment/2010/08/bp-ocean-timeline-damage-control" target="_blank">went swiftly into damage-control mode</a>. One of its first steps was to buy up a third of the world's supply of chemical dispersants, including one called Corexit that was designed to concentrate oil into droplets that sink into the water column, where in theory they can be degraded by bacteria and stay off beaches.</p> <p>After the spill, roughly two million gallons of Corexit were dumped into the Gulf. There's just one problem: Despite BP's <a href="http://www.motherjones.com/environment/2010/09/bp-ocean-cover-up?page=2" target="_blank">protestations to the contrary</a>, Corexit is believed to be highly toxic&mdash;not just to marine life but also to the workers who were spraying it and locals living nearby&mdash;according to a new segment on <em>Vice</em> that will air tonight on HBO at 11 pm ET. (For its part, <a href="http://www.nola.com/politics/index.ssf/2013/04/watchdog_group_reports_health.html" target="_blank">BP has said</a> that its use of dispersants was approved by the federal government and that it isn't aware of any data that the disperants pose a health threat.)</p> <p>The show follows cleanup workers, local doctors, and shrimpers, and suggests that four years after the spill, Corexit contamination could be nearly as big a problem as the oil itself. You can watch a short clip from tonight's show above.</p></body></html> Blue Marble Video Climate Desk Energy Fri, 16 May 2014 19:20:42 +0000 Tim McDonnell 252006 at http://www.motherjones.com Bribes, Favors, and a Billion-Dollar Yacht: Inside the Crazy World of the Men Who Do Oil Companies' Dirty Work http://www.motherjones.com/environment/2014/05/exxon-chevron-oil-fixers-silverstein <!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.0 Transitional//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/REC-html40/loose.dtd"> <html><body><p>When big oil companies like Exxon-Mobil and Chevron set their sights on a prime new oil reserve in Africa, Asia, or the Middle East, the first phone call they make usually isn't to the government office putting it up for sale. Instead, they ring up one of their contacts in a small, elite group of so-called "fixers," a shady cabal of a few dozen well-connected billionaires who hold the strings on the market for the world's most valuable commodity. The fixer gets a fat fee and a straightforward assignment: Do whatever you need to do to get us those oil rights.&nbsp;</p> <p>Unlike the US, where oil rights are held by individual property owners and leased to mining companies, in most developing nations oil rights are held by the government, and getting them means having a personal relationship with the right ministers&mdash;and knowing how to grease their palms. Since the mid-1900s, oil companies have relied on fixers to do their dirty work, crisscrossing the globe with a Rolodex stacked with the calling cards of corrupt heads of state. In the end, we get cheap oil, oil companies get plausible deniability, and the leaders of some of the world's most oppressive regimes get astronomically rich.</p> <p>Ken Silverstein is a veteran journalist who has spent the last several years finagling his way into the traditionally hyper-reclusive world of oil fixers, gaining unprecedented access to many key players and amassing a portfolio of outrageous tales of bribery, exploitation, and obscene wealth. His book, <a href="http://www.powells.com/biblio/9781781681374" target="_blank"><em>The Secret World of Oil</em></a>, hit shelves yesterday, and I spoke to him about how US companies continue to skirt anti-bribery laws in the high-stakes pursuit of oil.&nbsp; &nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Climate Desk:</strong> The oil companies that are using fixers, these are the companies that people are familiar with&mdash;Exxon, Chevron?</p> <p><strong>Ken Silverstein:</strong> In all the big oil companies, it would be rare for them never to use fixers in their deals. The bigger firms like Exxon have a lot of power and local knowledge and may handle this sort of thing on their own. But even Exxon, for part of the negotiations, is going to rely on a fixer. One of the reasons is that it's a dicey game. It's not always flat-out bribery, although in the old days it really was. The old model was that let's say you were a company and you wanted a concession in Nigeria. Well, you'd go to Fixer A and give Fixer A, say, a million dollars, and Fixer A would go to his friends in the Nigerian government and wire half a million dollars into a few Swiss bank accounts&mdash;or just, you know, a suitcase full of cash. That was it. Fixer A kept his half million, the government officials had their half million, and the company got its oil concession. Pretty simple, pretty straightforward.</p> <p>Well, that's changed a lot, partly because the US and Europe have outlawed bribery. So it's gotten dicier. There's a senior Halliburton official who's currently in jail, who was implicated in a massive bribery scandal that helped Halliburton win a multimillion dollar stake in Nigeria. Typically, though, the companies want one or two degrees of separation&mdash;you're not going to have your senior vice president meeting with a government official who you need to pay off. You want an intermediary, a fixer who can handle that, who, if anything goes wrong, you can disown all knowledge of and the fixer gets dumped and blamed.</p> <div class="inline inline-left" style="display: table; width: 1%"><img alt="silverstein" class="image" src="/files/silverstein_0.JPG"><div class="caption"><strong>Ken Silverstein </strong>Courtesy Verso Books</div> </div> <p><strong>CD</strong>: Is any of this legal, what the fixers are doing? It seems like it's in a strange grey area.</p> <p><strong>KS</strong>: It's illegal if you get caught. But you'd rarely be so stupid now as to wire money into an official's account, you don't do it that way. Here's a real example from what Exxon did in Equatorial Guinea, one of the world's worst dictatorships sitting on untold amounts of oil. In some places where there is no corruption, there's closed-door bidding and whoever makes the best offer wins. In a place like Equatorial Guinea that's not the way it works. It's whoever figures out how to give the president and his inner circle the most money, gets the contract. And sometimes it may be flat-out bribes, but Exxon doesn't want to do that. What did Exxon do? They wanted land to build their compound, and to develop their project. And where did they buy the land? "Well, the president owns some land and it would be perfect for us." And so they just overpaid by an enormous amount of money, and it's clearly just putting money in the president's pocket.</p> <p><strong>CD</strong>: Here, in Texas or North Dakota or wherever, you have a private landowner who owns the mineral rights and can sell them to whoever they want. But in the countries you're talking about oil is owned to start with by the government. Does that lend the process to the kind of corruption you're talking about?</p> <p><strong>KS</strong>: It's a very highly politicized process to get access to that oil, so yes it absolutely does lend itself to corruption. And it also lends itself to reinforcing the power of these regimes that frequently are dictatorships. I want to cite Ed Chow, a former Chevron executive. He said: "In Texas I can convince landowners to lease me their mineral rights. They get a royalty check every month and the companies leave a small footprint on their land. What's not to love? There's no equivalent in places like Nigeria or Angola or Kazakhstan. You get the land, but you don't provide a lot of jobs, you may be destroying the environment, and most of the profit goes to international capital. The companies don't have a strong case to sell to local communities, so they come to not only accept highly centralized government, but to crave it. A strongman president can make all the necessary decisions. It's a lot easier to win support from the top than to build it from the bottom."</p> <p>That's precisely the environment where fixers thrive.</p></body></html> <p style="font-size: 1.083em;"><a href="/environment/2014/05/exxon-chevron-oil-fixers-silverstein"><strong><em>Continue Reading &raquo;</em></strong></a></p> Environment Interview Climate Desk Corporations Energy International Top Stories Wed, 14 May 2014 10:00:10 +0000 Tim McDonnell 251786 at http://www.motherjones.com