Tom Philpott

Will Factory Farms Finally Have to (Gasp!) Get a Vet's Approval to Use Antibiotics?

| Thu Dec. 12, 2013 7:00 AM EST

Almost 80 percent of antibiotics consumed in the United States go to livestock farms; antibiotic-resistant pathogens affecting people are on the rise; and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has made the connection between those two developments. So what's the Food and Drug Administration doing to curb overuse of these key drugs on animal farms?

On Wednesday, the FDA spelled it out by releasing recommendations (text [PDF]; press release) on how drugmakers should "voluntarily" modify the way they administer antibiotics to the meat industry. It also released a proposal that would require a veterinarian's signoff for antibiotics that are commonly used in human medicine—which would represent a major departure from the antibiotics free-for-all that holds sway today.

Some of these "medically important" antibiotics are widely used on livestock farms. Take tetracycline, a drug used in human medicine to treat urinary-tract infections, acne, gonorrhea, chlamydia, and other maladies. In 2009, for example, an analysis of FDA data by Johns Hopkins Center for a Livable Future found that US livestock farms burned through more than 10 million pounds of tetracycline—compared to total human consumption of all antibiotics of just 7.3 million pounds. 

In 2009, US livestock farms burned through more than 10 million pounds of tetracycline—compared to total human consumption of all antibiotics of just 7.3 million pounds. 

The FDA will be taking comments on this proposal, known as the Veterinarian Feed Directive, for the next 90 days. 

Meanwhile, the new recommendations—also released Wednesday—narrows the "prevention" loophole, which I pointed out when the FDA first floated the new system in April 2012. Currently, factory livestock farms use antibiotics in three ways. The first is what the FDA calls "production": the livestock industry discovered in the 1950s that when animals get small daily antibiotic doses, they put on weight faster, and the practice has been embraced ever since. No. 2 is disease "prevention": when you concentrate animals together, they're prone to illness and pass diseases among themselves quickly. Daily antibiotic doses can boost their immune systems and keep them from coming down with bugs. The third use is disease treatment, the one we humans are familiar with: you come down with a bacterial bug and and treat it with antibiotics.

Of course, there's little distinction between giving animals small daily doses of antibiotics to prevent disease and giving them small daily doses to make them put on weight. The industry can simply claim it's using antibiotics "preventively," continuing to reap the benefits of growth promotion and continuing to generate resistant bacteria. That's the loophole.

But the document released Wednesday delivers five pretty specific guidelines on how "prevention" should be defined, including that antibiotics prescribed preventively should be "targeted to animals at risk of developing a specific disease," i.e., not given willy-nilly to "prevent" the theoretical possibility of some hypothetical disease. It adds: "FDA would not consider the administration of a drug to apparently healthy animals in the absence of any information that such animals were at risk of a specific disease to be judicious." That's the strongest statement I've seen from the FDA on the prevention loophole.

Laura Rogers, who directs the Pew Charitable Trusts' human health and industrial-farming campaign, calls that language "promising." She adds: "This is the first official FDA policy on disease prevention, acknowledging that it is a problem."

There does, of course, remain the whole "voluntary" problem, as Jean Halloran, director of food policy initiatives for Consumers Union, stressed. "We have urged that these changes be mandatory, given how urgent the problem of antibiotic resistance is," Halloran said in a statement.

And US Rep. Louise Slaughter (D-N.Y.), who since 2007 has been heroically pushing legislation that would definitively crack down on antibiotic use on farms, issued the following lament:

The FDA's voluntary guidance is an inadequate response to the overuse of antibiotics on the farm with no mechanism for enforcement and no metric for success. Sadly, this guidance is the biggest step the FDA has taken in a generation to combat the overuse of antibiotics in corporate agriculture, and it falls woefully short of what is needed to address a public health crisis.

The fate of Slaughter's antibiotic crackdown proposal, called the "Preservation of Antibiotics for Medical Treatment Act," illustrates the industry's power in shaping policy. Check out the roster of groups that lined up to lobby on the 2011 version of Slaughter's bill, courtesy of OpenSecrets—it reads like a meat/pharma industry trade convention floor show. The groups have lavished millions on the effort to defeat Slaughter's bill, which has thus far never come close to passing.

With congressional action looking impossible, the FDA's weak tea is all we have. But it could be weaker—at least the FDA gummed up that loophole with a few potentially substantial obstacles to agribusiness as usual.

Advertise on

The 4 Best Cookbooks of 2013

| Wed Dec. 11, 2013 6:55 AM EST

Like a marvelous baguette half eaten and left out, the golden age of American cookbooks opened with a flourish—the 1962 publication of Julia Childs' Mastering the Art of French Cooking—and then went stale over time. The impulse to create "authentic" versions of dishes from faraway lands turned into a mania. Then, celebrity chefs got into the act, churning out high-minded tomes that seemed to presume one had a brigade of prep cooks on hand. For me, the turning point came in 2004, when I left New York City and moved to a farm in rural North Carolina. I brought along my  copy of Jeffrey Alford and Naomi Duguid's exacting and brilliant Hot Sour Salty Sweet: A Culinary Journey Through Southeast Asia, but my will—and ability—to chase down South Asian ingredients eventually waned (coriander root in Boone, N.C.?). Something similar happened with Daniel Boulud's Cooking With Daniel Boulud and its fussy techniques. Moreover, in the scrum of farm work, the patience to attack a tower of dirty pots for a single meal also dwindled. Simplicity and seasonality came to the fore. I grew tired of cookbooks, even though I had largely learned to cook from them.

Then, two years ago, I identified a new wave of the genre, one driven by writers who are tied to their surrounding foodsheds and dedicated to simple technique without sacrificing flavor. These writers have reenchanted the form for me, and 2013 was another banner year. Here are my favorites.


Vegetable Literacy

By Deborah Madison

Any chef will tell you that meat is easy: You sear the tender cuts and slow-cook the tough ones. Vegetables are where cooking gets tricky—and interesting. Deborah Madison, founding chef of the pioneering San Francisco vegetarian temple Greens (launched 1979), is our foremost authority on the topic. She has come out with a masterpiece, a gorgeously illustrated, recipe-laden cook's almanac of the vegetable kingdom. The book is structured like an encyclopedia—the 12 chapters span the entire vegetable kingdom, from the carrot family (which includes celery, parsnips, and parsley) to brassicas (cabbage, kale, broccoli, etc.) to grasses (grains) and legumes (peas and beans). Each opens with a brief, information-packed essay, including anecdotes from a life spent in the kitchen as well as gardening and cooking tips. And then it's recipes, the great majority of them dead-simple and illustrated with photos  that will send you clamoring out to the garden or the farmers market and back to the kitchen. This is the book I'll be reaching for when I've gone crazy at the market and wonder, what am I going to do with all these turnips?

Great gift for: Anyone who loves cooking, vegetarian or omnivore

Killer dish: Kale and potato mash with Romesco sauce

Dish I'm dying to try: A new-millennium carrot cake—one that's single-layered, bolstered with ground almonds, and adorned with ricotta cream instead of the "obligatory pavement of cream-cheese frosting."

River Cottage Veg

By Hugh Fearnley-Whittingstall

UK chef Hugh Fearnley-Whittingstall has emerged as a classic-cookbook-generating machine—2013 marks the third straight year that his latest model has made my best-of-year list (see 2011 and 2012). He established his bona-fides with the magisterial River Cottage Meat Book, tattered copies of which have found a place in many an omnivore's kitchen since its 2007 US debut. But alongside his devotion to sustainably produced meat, Fearnley-Whittingstall has always insisted that the vegetable kingdom, not the animal one, should take precedence on the plate. And as he showed in the quirky, irresistible River Cottage Every Day (2011), he has a gift for coming up with practical recipes for harried home cooks. His new book delivers more of the same, this time strictly for vegetable-based dishes. It's set up for someone looking to plan a week's family meals—chapter headings include "Bready things" (pizzas, sandwiches, and wraps), "Hefty soups," and "Pantry suppers." Yet it has things to teach even a veteran cook like me—for example, to get a flavorful vegetable stock in just 10 minutes of simmering, grate the carrots, onion, and celery first.

Great gift for: A family of tentative cooks looking to eat healthier

Killer dish: Salad of red cabbage, parsnip, orange, and dates

Dish I'm dying to try: Pea and parsley soup

Notes From the Larder

By Nigel Slater

Masterful gardeners can come off as boastful and off-putting when they write about their home-grown kitchen exploits, flaunting their perfection and hinting that anything less just won't do. In his 2011 book Tender: A Cook and His Vegetable Patch (which made my list in '11), UK food writer Nigel Slater avoids that trap—even though his London flat's backyard has one of the most gorgeous and charming culinary gardens I've ever seen (to judge from the photos of it included in the book). It's through his gentle, encouraging prose that Slater manages to make you want to get your hands dirty in garden and kitchen alike—that, and his simple, ingenious seasonal dinner ideas. His latest, a yearlong "kitchen diary with recipes," has won me over as well. I love it because it gives you a view into a master home cook's thinking process—how he goes from "what's on hand" to "what's for dinner," over the course of four seasons. Sometimes it's bluntly simple, like the November evening after Slater spent hours putting his garden to bed for winter: He describes whipping up a plain miso soup, and adds, "And then I attacked the cheese and wine." Most entries are more elaborate, but never too elaborate—like the late-summer night when he salvages what's left of his tomato crop, which is beginning to wither in the rain, in an easy baked dish with chicken thighs, olives, and garlic. Altogether, the entries sum up to a kind of meandering portrait of a well-lived London life—and a useful cookbook to boot.

Great gift for: That friend of yours who loves to cook and to read about it, too

Killer dish: Lentil and spinach pie with potato crust

Dish I'm dying to try: Beet fritters with gravlax

Manresa: An Edible Reflection

By David Kinch

I don't have much appetite for the classic chef's opus—a gaudily illustrated, absurdly oversized document of some wizard's culinary Xanadu. What's in it for me, when I'll never have the ambition to either attempt to cook the high-wire dishes at home, or the coin to experience them in person? David Kinch's tribute to his farm-to-table temple Manresa in Northern California's Santa Cruz Mountains bears all the hallmarks of the genre, but it won me over all the same. It did so after I had been idly leafing through the sumptuous photographs and marveling at the complexity of the recipes: the rhubarb foam that gilded a dish of rhubarb jam and mint granita, the black truffle (retail price: about $150) deemed necessary for an "old-fashioned omelet" for four. "Yum," I sighed, preparing to close the book and forget it.

Then I happened upon the preamble to a dish called "Into the vegetable garden…" Kinch introduces it as an homage to the celebrated French country chef Michel Bras, who, back in the 1970s, on his daily run through the countryside on a day when the hills were "in full bloom," decided to "try to translate the fields." And thus, Kinch reports, a "local dish of ham and potatoes" turned into "a garden's worth of herbs and vegetables—raw and cooked, cultivated and foraged—at all stages of growth, from stem to flower." Anyone, I think, who cooks passionately and has fallen in love with a piece of farmland has felt that stir, that ambition to "translate" the beauty of a field at the height of its fecundity onto the plate. I have. And so I read, rapt, Kinch's Bras-inspired recipe in tribute to the small farm that he collaborates with in California. The dish combines multiple elements: "dirt" of dehydrated, ground root vegetables; root-vegatable purees; gently cooked vegetables; shaved raw ones; a riot of edible flowers; and, as a final flourish, a "dew" of champagne vinegar emulsified with an elaborate vegetable broth. The preparation is utterly absurd and I doubt I'll ever try it, but  loved imagining it, and it drew me into Kinch's quirky project and made the rest of the book an irresistible read.

Great gift for: An aspiring young chef or a farm-loving aesthete of any age

Killer dish: I didn't have the guts to try a single one.

Dish I'm dying to try: "Into the vegetable garden…" (maybe someday).

Honorable mentions:

Roberta's Cookbook, by Carlo Mirarchi, Brandon Hoy, Chris Parachini, and Katherine Wheelock

An idiosyncratic, not-too-chefy guide to pizza, pasta, and vegetables from the creators of the instant-classic hipster canteen in Bushwick, Brooklyn.

Spain, by Jeff Koehler

A brisk survey of the Iberian culinary landscape, with fresh takes on classic preparations.

The Art of Simple Food II: Recipes, Flavor, and Inspiration from the New Kitchen Garden, by Alice Waters

In a follow-up to her 2007 compendium of home cooking (which I reviewed here), the Berkeley legend and doyenne of sustainable cooking delivers her wisdom on transforming the bounty of a well-tended garden into unfussy, delicious meals.

Today's USDA Meat Safety Chief Is Tomorrow's Agribiz Consultant

| Sat Dec. 7, 2013 7:00 AM EST

Deloitte Touche is one of the globe's "big four" auditing and consulting firms. It's a player in the Big Food/Ag space—Deloitte's clients include "75% of the Fortune 500 food production companies." The firm's US subsidiary, Deloitte & Touche LLP, has a shiny new asset to dangle before its agribusiness clients: It has hired the US Department of Agriculture's Undersecretary for Food Safety, Elisabeth Hagen. She will "join Deloitte's consumer products practice as a food safety senior advisor," the firm stated in a press release. The firm also trumpeted her USDA affiliation:

"Elisabeth will bring to Deloitte an impressive blend of regulatory level oversight and hands-on experience, stemming from her role as the highest ranking food safety official in the U.S.," said Pat Conroy, vice chairman, Deloitte LLP, and Deloitte's U.S. consumer products practice leader.

Last month, Hagen announced her imminent resignation from her USDA post, declaring she would be "embarking in mid-December on a new challenge in the private sector." Now we know what that "challenge" is. It's impressive that Deloitte managed to bag a sitting USDA undersecretary—especially the one holding the food safety portfolio, charged with overseeing the nation's slaughterhouses. Awkwardly, Hagen is still "currently serving" her USDA role, the Deloitte press release states. I'm sure the challenge of watchdogging the meat industry while preparing to offer it consulting services won't last long. The USDA has not announced a time frame for replacing Hagen.

Hagen won't be the only member of Deloitte's US food-safety team with ties to the federal agencies charged with overseeing the food industry. You know those new poultry-slaughter rules that Hagen's erstwhile fiefdom, the USDA's Food Safety and Inspection Service, keeps touting, the ones that would save Big Poultry a quarter-billion dollars a year but likely endanger consumers and workers alike, as I laid out most recently here? Craig Henry, a director within Deloitte's food & product safety practice, served on the USDA-appointed National Advisory Committee on Meat and Poultry Inspection, which advised the FSIS on precisely those rules, as this 2012 Federal Register notice shows. 

Then there's Faye Feldstein, who serves Deloitte as a senior adviser for food safety issues, the latest post in what her Deloitte bio calls a "33-year career in senior positions in the food industry and in federal and state regulatory agencies." Before setting up shop as a consultant, Feldstein served a ten-year stint at the Food and Drug Administration in various food-safety roles. Before that, she worked for 12 years at W.R. Grace, a chemical conglomerate with interests in food additives and packaging.

Apart from Hagen's new career direction, some food-safety advocates have offered praise for her tenure at USDA. They point out that, under her leadership, the FSIS cracked down on certain strains of E. coli in ground beef, an important and long-overdue move explained in this post by the veteran journalist Maryn McKenna. On his blog, Bill Marler, a prominent litigator of food-borne illness cases on behalf of consumers, called Hagen "one of the very best who has ever held that position," adding that she'll be "sorely missed."

But if the USDA does make good on its oft-stated intention to finalize those awful new poultry rules, I think Hagen will be remembered most for pushing them ahead, to the delight of the poultry industry and the despair of worker and consumer-safety advocates.



The Obama Administration's Meaty Gift to Big Chicken

| Thu Dec. 5, 2013 7:00 AM EST

Remember the proposal that Obama's US Department of Agriculture has been pushing since spring 2012, the one that would speed up kill lines in poultry slaughterhouses while simultaneously slashing the number of federal inspectors who oversee them? As I've reported before, the plan involves a unleashing a barrage of anti-microbial sprays onto chicken carcasses as they zip down the line.

The Washington Post's Kimberly Kindy has shown that these sprays, whose use is already on the upswing, harm workers and may even mask, not decrease, salmonella contamination. As for the traces of them that remain on supermarket chicken, "government agencies have not conducted independent research into the possible side effects on consumers of using the chemicals," Kindy reported.

Back in April, as I reported at the time, USDA chief Tom Vilsack declared that the department would roll out the plan "very soon." The USDA claims that it would save taxpayers $30 million per year by laying off inspectors, and save the poultry industry "at least" $256 million annually. The chicken industry—dominated by Tyson, Pilgrim's Pride (now mostly owned by JBS), Perdue, and Sanderson—strongly supports the proposal.

But it caused an uproar among food safety and labor advocates—who argued that the combination of more speed and fewer inspectors would lead to dangerous conditions for both consumers and line workers, sparking hopes the USDA might back away from it. A scathing Government Accountability Office assessment (my analysis here) bolstered those hopes.

The new plan involves a unleashing a barrage of anti-microbial sprays onto chicken carcasses as they zip down the line.

But over the past week, the administration has sent two signals indicating that it plans to move ahead with the rules. Just before Thanksgiving, the administration released its Fall 2013 Regulatory Agenda, including for the USDA, which states that in 2014, the department's meat inspection service "plans to finalize regulations to establish new systems for poultry slaughter inspection, which would improve food safety and save money for establishments and taxpayers."

And then, on Wednesday, the USDA's Food Safety and Inspection Service released its action plan to reduce salmonella contamination of the meat supply. What's No. 1 on its 10-point list? "[M]odernization of poultry slaughter inspection," the USDA's preferred phrase for its speedup plan. What does firing inspectors and jacking up line speeds have to do with fighting salmonella?

The timeline on exactly when the administration plans to move on the plan remains cloudy—but its determination to do so seems as strong as ever.

BPA Sales Are Booming

| Tue Dec. 3, 2013 7:00 AM EST
Yes, you can make lots of money selling BPA.

Bisphenol A, a chemical used in can linings and plastic bottles, is pretty nasty stuff. Last year, the Food and Drug Administration banished it from baby bottles (at the behest of the chemical industry itself, after baby bottle producers had already phased it out under consumer pressure). BPA, as it's known, is an endocrine-disrupting chemical, meaning that it likely causes hormonal damage at extremely low levels. The packaging industry uses it to make plastics more flexible and to delay spoilage in canned foods.

You might think that such a substance would lose popularity as evidence of its likely harms piles up and up. Instead, however, the global market for it will boom over the next six years, according to a proprietary, paywall-protected report from the consultancy Transparency Market Research. The group expects global BPA sales to reach $18.8 billion by 2019, from $13.1 billion in 2012—about a 44 percent jump.

TMR researchers declined to be interviewed by me and wouldn't give me access to a full copy of their report. But they did send me a heavily redacted sample. One of the few trends I could glean from it is that the "steady growth" in global BPA consumption is driven by "increasing demand in the Asia-Pacific region." (According to this 2012 paper by Hong Kong researchers, Chinese BPA production and consumption have both "grown rapidly" in recent years, meaning "much more BPA contamination" for the nation's environment and citizens.) As for the United States, the report says that North America is the globe's "third largest regional market for BPA," behind Asia and Europe. North American BPA consumption is growing, but a "at a very slow rate," the report states. As a result, our share of the global BPA is expected to experience a "slight decline" by 2019. Not exactly comforting.

The sample that Transparency Market Research sent me blacked out its analysis of which companies have what share of the global BPA market. This 2012 US Department of Agriculture report claims that just two companies, German chemical giant Bayer and its US rival Dow, "produce the bulk of BPA in the world." Another major producer is Saudi Basic Industries Corp., or SABIC, a company 70 percent owned by the Saudi government. This charming corporate crew looks set to cash in on handsomely on the ongoing BPA boom.

Study: Everything I Like to Ingest Has Arsenic

| Mon Dec. 2, 2013 7:00 AM EST

I have a friend who claims to have stopped reading me because I ruin all of her favorite foods for her: rice, quinoa, chicken… After writing this post, I may boycott me as well. In a study (hat tip: LiveScience) apparently designed by my friend for revenge on me, Dartmouth researchers found an association between bodily arsenic loads and consumption of the following substances I have swooned over in print (and enjoy in really life pretty much every chance I get): white wine, beer, Brussels sprouts, and "dark meat fish," a category that includes my beloved sardines.

For people who drink 2.5 beers or glasses of white wine per day, they found, arsenic levels were 20 percent to 30 percent higher than for nondrinkers. Gulp. Or, perhaps better: Stop gulping.

LiveScience's Bahar Gholipour raises an important caveat: The researchers acknowledge that it's unclear whether the arsenic levels the researchers found in their subjects are high enough to trigger the compound's negative effects, which include, according to the study, "skin lesions; skin, lung, and bladder cancer; vascular diseases; low birth weight; and potentially diabetes mellitus and increased susceptibility to infection." More research, they say, is needed, and I'll be following closely.

As for rice, which has been shown in recent studies to have high arsenic loads, the researchers found "no clear relationship" between consumption and arsenic loads. So my friend can go back to eating her favorite staple—seasoned with a lashing of schadenfreude. Excuse me while I whip up my dinner: air-poached air, accompanied by well-filtered water.

Advertise on

Tom's Kitchen: Shaved Raw Brussels Sprouts Salad

| Wed Nov. 27, 2013 6:55 AM EST
Not your grandpa's Brussels.

Nothing splinters a Thanksgiving table quite like Brussels sprouts. Most people loathe them, conjuring the mushy, sulfurous orbs that famously taunted Beaver Cleaver in the '50s. Others actually like Brussels that way, and will devote themselves to fussily cutting an "X" into each one, before steaming or boiling them into submission. Then there's the new-wavers like me, who adore them roasted with plenty of garlic and olive oil. This year, I'm whipping up a pox on all houses—or possibly, an (extra-virgin) olive branch to unite them.

Your grandpa's Brussels.

There's so much rich, roasted stuff on the Thanksgiving table that I'm going raw with Brussels this year—shaving them into a crunchy, zingy salad. But because this is for our national feast, there has to be some richness involved. So I worked in a slice of bacon. (For vegetarians, I recommend omitting the bacon and adding either some toasted walnuts, grated Parmigiano Reggiano, or both.)

Shaved Raw Brussels Sprouts Salad with Bacon-Lemon Vinaigrette
(Serves 4-6 as a side dish)

1 thick slice of bacon from a pastured hog, chopped into small chunks
2 small cloves of garlic, crushed, peeled, and minced
1 pound Brussels sprouts, tough outer leaves peeled
1 bunch parsley, coarsely chopped
1/4 cup extra-virgin olive oil
2 Tablespoon fresh lemon juice
Freshly ground black pepper, to taste
Sea salt, to taste

mandolin brussel sprouts
It's a mandoline's world.

Cook the bacon in a small frying pan over low-medium heat until the chunks are brown and crispy and have rendered their fat. Turn the heat to low and remove the bacon bits with a slotted spoon, letting the fat drip back into the pan. Set the bacon bits to the side. Add the chopped garlic to the pan and cook, stirring, just until the garlic is fragrant. Remove from heat.

Slice the Brussels very thin, using either a mandoline (here's the cheap, effective one I use) or a very sharp knife.

Now make the vinaigrette. In the bowl you plan to serve the salad in, add the olive oil, the bacon fat/garlic combo, the lemon juice, a good pinch of sea salt and a robust grind of pepper. Whisk. Now dump in the shaved Brussels, the parsley, and the bacon bits. Toss, taste, and adjust for seasoning.

Turkey at $1.38 a Pound Sounds Great. Until You Think About What That Means.

| Wed Nov. 27, 2013 6:55 AM EST
Life on a factory turkey farm: not such a bargain.

In Wisconsin, you can buy a Butterball turkey for $1.38 per pound, reports Nami Moon Farms, on its blog. That's about $16.50 for a 12-pound bird—a Thanksgiving main course for eight, plus "ample leftovers." The Nami Moon folks calculate that if they tried to compete with Butterball on price in the their pasture-based turkey system, they'd lose $36.44 per bird—representing a loss of $1,822 for the 50 birds they raise.

Now, a conventional economist would likely conclude from this information that Butterball represents the height of industrial efficiency, while Nami Moon is an anachronism. But the low price  doesn't just reflect efficiency. It also, as the veteran agriculture reporter Christopher Leonard showed in a Friday Washington Post op-ed, reveals power—specifically, the power to exploit farmers.

"Just four corporations—Cargill, Hormel, Butterball and Farbest Foods—produce more than half of the turkey in the United States, a level of concentration unthinkable just a few decades ago," Leonard writes. Leonard writes that the Big Turkey operates on the chicken industry's model. Here's how it works.

Turkeys graze on organic pastures and live in pens that protect them from predators, direct sun light, and wind at Nick’s Organic Farm in Maryland. USDA/Flickr

Here is what modern poultry farming looks like: A farmer will borrow several hundred thousand dollars (or in some cases millions) to build industrial barns where the birds will be raised. The birds themselves are never bought or sold on an open market; a poultry company delivers chicks to the farm and picks them up about six weeks later when the birds are big enough to slaughter. Farmers are kept on short-term contracts with the big poultry companies and live in fear that they’ll be dropped.

As a result, large processors manage to soak up most of the profits from large-scale turkey production, while "farmers are living on the edge of bankruptcy," he reports. According to these recent USDA numbers show (Excel file), turkey farmers' feed costs has risen by a factor of 2.5 since 2000, mainly because of the ethanol boom, while the price they get for their finished birds has risen only by 1.5 times. Meanwhile, Leanard shows, the meat giants' profit margins have expanded in recent years.

Of course, the power to squeeze farmers isn't the only advantage Big Turkey holds over small operators like Nami Moon. As I've shown before, the meat industry also boasts a formidable ability to prevent regulators from requiring them to clean up their messes. With 15,000 birds in a typical turkey facility—with an average of three flocks per year, that's a lot of concentrated turkey shit. At these mammoth operations, the welfare of the confined birds is  (sometimes literally) stomped on. On the Tuesday before Thanksgiving, yet another undercover video revealed horrific abuse on a factory turkey farm.

Then, of course, there are working conditions at the industry's vast slaughterhouses—staffed by low-wage workers who endure "debilitating pain in their hands, gnarled fingers, chemical burns, and respiratory problems," as the Southern Poverty Law Center put it in a recent report. Finally, there's the industry's reliance on low doses of antibiotics to keep animals alive and growing fast under cramped, unsanitary conditions, which the Centers for Disease Control has bluntly acknowledged contributes to antibiotic-resistant pathogens that threaten people.

So that $1.38/pound price tag doesn't tell a simple story about industrial efficiency. It's also the consumer cherry on top of a largely invisible production system built on rank exploitation—of farmers, workers, animals, public health, and land.

Best Thanksgiving Pro Tips From My Twitter Chat

| Thu Nov. 21, 2013 3:37 PM EST

Thanksgiving's in a week, and I know you're bursting with questions. What's a great vegetarian main dish that's not a pre-formed tofu log? What's up with supermarket turkey? What's the best way to cook a pastured, heritage one? Don't bottle it up. Let's hash it all out in 140 characters or less, at my Twitter chat, starting at 3 pm eastern, today. Find me at @tomphilpott.

Update: For those of you that missed the chats, don't worry—you don't have to miss the great Thanksgiving tips! We've rounded up some of the tweets from the conversation below.

On dry brining the bird:

On veggies and sides:

On the perfect gravy:

On booze:

On medicating your unwitting family:

On a tiny Thanksgiving:

On leftovers:

The great pie debate:

Undercover Video Reveals Savage Abuse at a Factory Pig Farm. Again.

| Thu Nov. 21, 2013 2:09 PM EST
Boxed in: Pregant sows in gestation crates at a hog facility in Oklahoma.

Pushed by consumer outrage, the pork industry appears to be slowly moving away from the practice of confining pregnant sows for most of their lives in "gestation crates": spaces so tight, the unfortunate beasts can't even turn around. ("Basically, you’re asking a sow to live in an airline seat," as the animal-welfare expert Temple Grandin puts it.) Several large retailers and food chains, including McDonald’s, Burger King, Wendy’s, Chipotle, Safeway, Kroger, Costco, and Kmart, have pledged to demand that the pork they buy be from crate-free facilities; and several gigantic pork processors, including Smithfield and Hormel, have vowed to comply.

But two massive companies—Walmart, which is by far the nation's largest grocer, and mega-meat processor Tyson—have stubbornly refused to take a stand on crates, shrugging off considerable pressure. I think that may be about to change.

That's because undercover investigators from the animal-welfare Mercy For Animals managed to infiltrate the workforce of an Oklahoma facility that supplies hogs to Tyson, which in turn processes them into pork for Walmart. What they found looks like a public-service commercial on the cruelty of gestation crates—with a nasty dash of baby-pig abuse thrown in. The video documents abuse both routine and spectacular: from the awful confinement of pregnant sows into tiny spaces to men pummeling them with sheets of wood and kicking them. The video isn't for the squeamish.

Just a few weeks ago, Mercy For Animals got the goods on another facility that supplies pork to Walmart, this one in Minnesota. This particular plant isn't affiliated with Tyson—but embarrassingly, its owner, Randy Spronk, is president of an industry trade group called the National Pork Producers Council. When you watch the following video, reflect that Spronk's company defends the practices depicted on the grounds that they're standard within the industry, including the bludgeoning to death of sick baby pigs.

Why do I think these latest exposés will sour Tyson and Walmart on sow crates? Recall that pork giant Smithfield was wavering on its commitment to phase out the practice—until a 2010 undercover investigation by the Humane Society of the United States documented horrific sow-crate scenes on it own farms. Like a hard slap in the face, the revelations inspired the company to vow anew to phase out extreme confinement of pregnant pigs.

Tyson has responded to the Oklahoma case by cutting ties to the hog operation in question, The Los Angeles Times reports. "We’re serious about proper animal handling and expect the farmers who supply us to treat animals with care and to be trained and certified in responsible animal care practices," the company wrote in a statement. As for Walmart, "We think the animal handling in this video [the Oklahoma one] is unacceptable. We agree with Tyson’s decision to terminate the relationship with the farm," a spokesperson told me.

But taking action against a single supplier might not be enough. There are really two issues here. One is overt violence—the kicking and pummeling. The other is the inherent cruelty of the crates themselves. On the latter issue, the Walmart spokesperson said, “We are currently engaged with pork suppliers, food manufacturers, animal rights organizations, and others to work towards an industry-wide model for raising pork that is not only respectful of farmers and animals, but also meets our customers’ expectations for quality and animal safety.”

Uh huh. It turns out, I think, that systematic abuse of the creatures that feed us can only flourish when it can be hidden from the public. As Ted Genoways showed in the cover story of the July/August 2013 Mother Jones, that's exactly why the meat industry has fought so hard to criminalize the investigations of groups like the Humane Society and Mercy for Animals. But at this point, the cat is out of the bag—and soon, I reckon, the sow will be out of the crate.