One such indicator came immediately: despite the furor, the general kept his important Pentagon job as deputy undersecretary of defense for intelligence, suggesting that the Bush administration considered his transgression minor. Perhaps Boykin had spoken out of turn, but his was not a fireable offense. (One can only speculate regarding the fate likely to befall a US high-ranking officer daring to say of Israeli Prime Benjamin Netanyahu, "My God is a real God and his is an idol.")
A second indicator came in the wake of Boykin's retirement from active duty. In 2012, the influential Family Research Council (FRC) in Washington hired the general to serve as the organization's executive vice-president. Devoted to "advancing faith, family, and freedom," the council presents itself as emphatically Christian in its outlook. FRC events routinely attract Republican Party heavyweights. The organization forms part of the conservative mainstream, much as, say, the American Civil Liberties Union forms part of the left-liberal mainstream.
So for the FRC to hire as its chief operating officer someone espousing Boykin's pronounced views regarding Islam qualifies as noteworthy. At a minimum, those who recruited the former general apparently found nothing especially objectionable in his worldview. They saw nothing politically risky about associating with Jerry Boykin. He's their kind of guy. More likely, by hiring Boykin, the FRC intended to send a signal: on matters where their new COO claimed expertise—above all, war—thumb-in-your eye political incorrectness was becoming a virtue. Imagine the NAACP electing Nation of Islam leader Louis Farrakhan as its national president, thereby endorsing his views on race, and you get the idea.
What the FRC's embrace of General Boykin makes clear is this: to dismiss manifestations of Islamophobia simply as the work of an insignificant American fringe is mistaken. As with the supporters of Senator Joseph McCarthy, who during the early days of the Cold War saw communists under every State Department desk, those engaging in these actions are daring to express openly attitudes that others in far greater numbers also quietly nurture. To put it another way, what Americans in the 1950s knew as McCarthyism has reappeared in the form of Boykinism.
Historians differ passionately over whether McCarthyism represented a perversion of anti-Communism or its truest expression. So, too, present-day observers will disagree as to whether Boykinism represents a merely fervent or utterly demented response to the Islamist threat. Yet this much is inarguable: just as the junior senator from Wisconsin in his heyday embodied a non-trivial strain of American politics, so, too, does the former special-ops-warrior-turned-"ordained minister with a passion for spreading the Gospel of Jesus Christ."
Notably, as Boykinism's leading exponent, the former general's views bear a striking resemblance to those favored by the late senator. Like McCarthy, Boykin believes that, while enemies beyond America's gates pose great dangers, the enemy within poses a still greater threat. "I've studied Marxist insurgency," he declared in a 2010 video. "It was part of my training. And the things I know that have been done in every Marxist insurgency are being done in America today." Explicitly comparing the United States as governed by Barack Obama to Stalin's Soviet Union, Mao Zedong's China, and Fidel Castro's Cuba, Boykin charges that, under the guise of health reform, the Obama administration is secretly organizing a "constabulary force that will control the population in America." This new force is, he claims, designed to be larger than the United States military, and will function just as Hitler's Brownshirts once did in Germany. All of this is unfolding before our innocent and unsuspecting eyes.
Boykinism: The New McCarthyism
How many Americans endorsed McCarthy's conspiratorial view of national and world politics? It's difficult to know for sure, but enough in Wisconsin to win him reelection in 1952, by a comfortable 54% to 46% majority. Enough to strike fear into the hearts of politicians who quaked at the thought of McCarthy fingering them for being "soft on Communism."
How many Americans endorse Boykin's comparably incendiary views? Again, it's difficult to tell. Enough to persuade FRC's funders and supporters to hire him, confident that doing so would burnish, not tarnish, the organization's brand. Certainly, Boykin has in no way damaged its ability to attract powerhouses of the domestic right. FRC's recent "Values Voter Summit" featured luminaries such as Republican vice-presidential nominee Paul Ryan, former Republican Senator and presidential candidate Rick Santorum, House Majority Leader Eric Cantor, and Representative Michele Bachmann—along with Jerry Boykin himself, who lectured attendees on "Israel, Iran, and the Future of Western Civilization." (In early August, Mitt Romney met privately with a group of "prominent social conservatives," including Boykin.)
Does their appearance at the FRC podium signify that Ryan, Santorum, Cantor, and Bachmann all subscribe to Boykinism's essential tenets? Not any more than those who exploited the McCarthyite moment to their own political advantage—Richard Nixon, for example—necessarily agreed with all of McCarthy's reckless accusations. Yet the presence of leading Republicans on an FRC program featuring Boykin certainly suggests that they find nothing especially objectionable or politically damaging to them in his worldview.
Still, comparisons between McCarthyism and Boykinism only go so far. Senator McCarthy wreaked havoc mostly on the home front, instigating witch-hunts, destroying careers, and trampling on civil rights, while imparting to American politics even more of a circus atmosphere than usual. In terms of foreign policy, the effect of McCarthyism, if anything, was to reinforce an already existing anti-communist consensus. McCarthy's antics didn't create enemies abroad. McCarthyism merely reaffirmed that communists were indeed the enemy, while making the political price of thinking otherwise too high to contemplate.
Boykinism, in contrast, makes its impact felt abroad. Unlike McCarthyism, it doesn't strike fear into the hearts of incumbents on the campaign trail here. Attracting General Boykin's endorsement or provoking his ire probably won't determine the outcome of any election. Yet in its various manifestations Boykinism provides the kindling that helps sustain anti-American sentiment in the Islamic world. It reinforces the belief among Muslims that the Global War on Terror really is a war against them.
Boykinism confirms what many Muslims are already primed to believe: that American values and Islamic values are irreconcilable. American presidents and secretaries of state stick to their talking points, praising Islam as a great religious tradition and touting past US military actions (ostensibly) undertaken on behalf of Muslims. Yet with their credibility among Iraqis, Afghans, Pakistanis, and others in the Greater Middle East about nil, they are pissing in the wind.
As long as substantial numbers of vocal Americans do not buy the ideological argument constructed to justify US intervention in the Islamic world—that their conception of freedom (including religious freedom) is ultimately compatible with ours—then neither will Muslims. In that sense, the supporters of Boykinism who reject that proposition encourage Muslims to follow suit. This ensures, by extension, that further reliance on armed force as the preferred instrument of U. S. policy in the Islamic world will compound the errors that produced and have defined the post-9/11 era.
Andrew J. Bacevich is currently a visiting fellow at Notre Dame's Kroc Institute for International Peace Studies. A TomDispatch regular, he is author of Washington Rules: America's Path to Permanent War, among other works, and most recently editor of The Short American Century.To stay on top of important articles like these, sign up to receive the latest updates from TomDispatch.com here.