Put a Tiger in Your Think Tank, Part II

A survey of ExxonMobil-supported organizations that challenge the scientific basis for concern about global climate change

1. Acton Institute for the Study of Religious Liberty

$ 155,000 from 2000-2003.

Based in Grand Rapids, Michigan, this outlet has been consistently involved in challenging mainstream scientific findings on global climate change in the course of defining its own religiously-based concept of environmental stewardship. Perhaps most notably, in 2000 the Acton Institute helped sponsor the "Cornwall Declaration on Environmental Stewardship" which stated, "While some environmental concerns are well founded and serious, others are without foundation or greatly exaggerated…Some unfounded or undue concerns include fears of destructive manmade global warming, overpopulation, and rampant species loss."[2]

Similarly, on the Acton Institute's website a document entitled "The Catholic Church and Stewardship of Creation" states that "Global warming, for instance, which remains speculative and based on incomplete computer models rather than on demonstrated science, might cost man and nature a great deal if we rush to impose dramatic limits on fossil-fuel use in a misguided attempt to solve a problem that may not even exist. Just twenty-five years ago, some of the current proponents of global warming were warning us about global cooling."[3] Another document, entitled "A Biblical Perspective on Environmental Stewardship" reads, "While atmospheric carbon dioxide (co2) is certainly on the rise, and global average temperature has almost certainly risen slightly in the last 120 years or so, it is by no means certain that the rising temperature stems from the rising co2….Highly speculative computer climate models drove the great fears of global warming that arose in the 1980s and endured through the 1990s."[4]

2. Advancement of Sound Science Center

$ 40,000 from 2000-2003; see also the "Free Enterprise Action Institute/Free Enterprise Education Institute."

According to IRS forms obtained from GuideStar.org, this organization is run by Steven Milloy, a frequent commenter on science issues on his website JunkScience.com and as a "junk science" columnist for FoxNews.com. Milloy has repeatedly challenged the scientific consensus on global warming in non-peer reviewed outlets. In a February 2001 Washington Times column, for example, he wrote that "There is general agreement that global temperatures warmed from 1910 to 1940 and cooled from 1940 to 1975. Temperature changes since 1975 are hotly disputed. The IPCC says global temperatures have warmed. But this claim is based on surface temperature records that are biased upward by temperature readings from urban areas whose concrete and asphalt absorb heat….the IPCC models that assume global climate is very sensitive to greenhouse gases and predict a 2.5- to 10.4-degree increase in temperature over the next 100 years remain seriously flawed."[5]

That's just one example out of many. In a June 8, 2001 column in Canada's National Post Milloy wrote, "As to the theory of man-made global warming, a read of the NAS report… reveals there is significant uncertainty about the surface temperature record. Moreover, the recent temperature records compiled from balloon and satellite measurements inexplicably don't show any warming."[6] In a June 25, 2004 Washington Times column he wrote, "When you consider that the greenhouse effect contributes about 60 degrees Fahrenheit to the Earth's average temperature [which would be about zero degree Fahrenheit without the greenhouse effect], it doesn't seem atmospheric carbon dioxide levels -- even if they triple or quadruple due to human activities -- are all that important to global climate."[7]

3. American Council for Capital Formation

$ 909,523 from 2000-2003, but only year in which activity was detected was 2001. The group received $ 250,000 in that year.

An examination this group's activities shows that it has largely focused on economic critiques of climate control policies like the Kyoto Protocol, rather than science-based argumentation. However, in Senate testimony in 2001, ACCF's Margo Thorning went beyond solely economic arguments by including an appendix on "key gaps in the science of climate change," meant to back up her argument that numerous "science questions must be addressed before the United States and its allies embark on a path as nonproductive as that of the Kyoto Protocol."[8]

The two page appendix provides an extremely one-sided presentation. It focuses solely on scientific uncertainties revealed in a 2001 National Academy of Sciences report on climate science, nowhere mentioning the report's strong conclusions about human-caused global warming. This highly selective emphasis on uncertainty and raising doubts, seen so frequently in the climate science "skeptic" camp, brings the activities of the American Council for Capital Formation within the purview of this study, at least for the year 2001.

4. American Council on Science and Health.

$ 215,000 total from 2000-2003; but subtract $ 25,000 in 2000 for "Environment and Children Study", $ 50,000 in 2002 for "Body Burdens and Biomarkers Project" and $ 25,000 in 2003 for "Children's Asthma." That leaves $ 115,000.

A steady recipient of modest infusions of ExxonMobil funding, this "consumer education consortium" counts S. Fred Singer and Patrick Michaels among its scientific advisers.[9] The group's director, Elizabeth Whelan, has written, "there is no scientific consensus concerning global warming. The climate change predictions are based on computer models that have not been validated and are far from perfect."[10] ACSH does not appear to work on global climate change as a primary focus, but the group's affiliations with prominent "skeptics" justify its inclusion on this list. However, funding explicitly earmarked for projects with no apparent relation to climate change has been subtracted from the total.

5. American Enterprise Institute

$ 960,000 from 2000-2003. See also "Pacific Research Institute for Public Policy," "Tech Central Station."

This august conservative think tank has ExxonMobil CEO Lee Raymond sitting on its board of trustees.[11] In 2003 it hosted a panel entitled "Return to Rio: Reexamining Climate Change Science, Economics, and Policy," which featured talks by "skeptics" Sallie Baliunas and David Legates.[12] At least two of AEI's fellows--James Glassman and Steven F. Hayward--have also repeatedly challenged mainstream climate change science. So has its president, Christopher DeMuth, in the think tank's own publication, The American Enterprise.

Glassman in particular has been a dedicated debunker of climate change concerns. In a December 11, 2000 column in the Washington Times, Glassman--identified as an AEI "resident fellow"--questioned the "still uncertain threat of global warming."[13] Similarly, in a May 12, 2001 column in the Canadian National Post he wrote,

If 20th-century warming has been caused by human-generated greenhouse gases, then why hasn't the earth heated up consistently, as CO2-emitting manufacturing and transportation activities have increased? It is generally agreed that the earth has been hotter in the past -- during the Middle Ages, for example, long before SUVs were invented. Strong evidence is emerging, in fact, that the earth's heating is cyclical, and that the prime mover in warming is the magnetic activity of the sun, as Sallie Baliunas, a respected Harvard astrophysicist who is also deputy director of the Mt. Wilson Observatory, has been finding in her research.[14]

Glassman has penned numerous other similar pieces and also teamed up with Baliunas in a number of articles challenging the scientific basis for concern about global warming.[15] He also "hosts" the website TechCentralStation.com (see more below), which specializes in climate change contrarianism.

AEI fellow Steven F. Hawyard (see also the "Pacific Research Institute for Public Policy") sometimes writes in a more subtle vein than Glassman, but he too has sought to undermine the scientific consensus on global warming. For example, in a 2003 article in the American Enterprise examining media coverage of the environment, Hayward provided a list of "some of the best environmental stories of the latest year," in which he included "Andrew Kenny's spirited and lengthy frontal attack on the global warming hypothesis" published in The Spectator of London.[16] More recently, in the National Review, Hayward wrote about climate change:

What do we actually know? The earth's temperature has risen about 1 degree Celsius over the last 100 years. That's where the agreement ends and the arguments begin….Some of the increase may be man-made, but much of it may be a natural warming trend stemming from the "little ice age" between the 14th and 19th centuries. Some scientists believe the warming may have more to do with deforestation and other land-use trends than greenhouse gases. There is no consensus on this point.[17]

Arguing along similarly misinformed lines, AEI's president, Christopher DeMuth, has also misrepresented our scientific understanding of climate change. Writing in 2001 that the Kyoto Protocol "deserved to die" (a quite premature statement as it turned out), DeMuth asserted, "Although it is fairly well-established that the Earth's atmosphere has warmed somewhat (one degree Fahrenheit) during the past century, it's not clear why this happened. The warming may have been due to human impositions (the burning of fossil fuels and other incidents of industrial growth), or to natural solar or climate variations, or to some of each."[18]

6. American Legislative Exchange Council

$ 712,200 from 2000-2003, including $ 50,000 in 2003 for "Energy and Climate Change" and $ 140,000 in 2003 for "Global Climate Change."

ExxonMobil's support of the American Legislative Exchange Council (ALEC), a group pushing conservative policies in statehouses, appears to reflect an interest in fighting greenhouse gas emission controls at the state level. ALEC has drawn on "skeptic" stalwart Patrick J. Michaels of the University of Virginia to question global warming concerns.[19] In a report for the group, Michaels did not deny some human influence on climate, but argued that global warming was ultimately a "paper tiger."[20] At least as of 2002, Michaels was also an "adviser" to ALEC.[21]

ALEC's leadership has gone farther, fundamentally disputing the scientific consensus on global warming. "The claim that carbon dioxide contributes to global warming is highly controversial, and is by no means agreed upon in the scientific community," executive director Duane Parde wrote in the conservative Washington Times in June of 2003.[22] It's unclear what Parde may have meant to say here, but not even global warming "skeptics" like Michaels seriously dispute the basic notion that carbon dioxide is a greenhouse gas.

7. Annapolis Center for Science-Based Public Policy

$ 697,500 from 2000-2003; but subtract $ 30,000 in 2003 for "epidemiological studies review," $ 50,000 in 2003 for "Leadership Conference on Asthma," $ 50,000 in 2002 for "Children's Asthma," and other funding for asthma related projects. That leaves $ 427,500.

According to the Wall Street Journal, as of 1997 this organization was largely funded by members of the National Association of Manufacturers (NAM).[23] Although Annapolis often produces calmly worded (if industry-friendly) studies on environmental policy topics, the group's chairman Harold M. Koenig has also penned opinion columns about global climate change that are considerably less nuanced and sometimes verge upon outright denial.

Writing in the Washington Times in July of 2000, for example, Koenig declared: "The politicized goal of sensationalizing unproven theories about global climate change, part of which is seemingly accomplished by the widespread dispensing of fear and uncertainty to the public, continues with the release of the draft report of the National Assessment on Climate Change (NACC) [Emphasis added]."[24] Beyond fundamentally calling into question the scientific consensus on climate change, in the same article Koenig misleadingly wrote, "One major unanswered question is how much of the observed warming of about 1 degree Fahrenheit during the past century may be caused by human activities and how much by natural climate variations. Despite the impression given by those attempting to advance one political agenda over another, we simply do not know the answer." What Koenig ignores is that while it may not be possible to describe exactly what percentage of change is natural as opposed to human-caused, scientists agree that human factors play a major or even the dominant role.

On a similar note, writing in the Baltimore Sun on July 27, 2001, Annapolis's Koenig and Harrison H. Schmitt (both of whom "were Apollo 17 astronauts" according to their by-line) posed the following questions:

Is global warming real? Does man affect global warming? If so, by how much? Is there a possibility that after a period of warming, Earth may cool as it did in the 1400s? Europe's "Little Ice Age" lasted until 1850.

Asking questions like these is not denial. Most scientists who have studied the issue believe the Earth's surface has been warming for centuries, but at an erratic yet accelerated rate in the 20th century.

They then went on to pay homage to the role of "rational thinking" without ever bothering to state the scientific consensus on climate change, leaving the impression that such "rational thinking," at the very least, throws the role of human beings in causing global warming into serious question.[25]

By November 5, 2003, Koenig remained in a state of denial, writing in a letter to the Washington Times: "Many environmental activists contend that CO2 is the prime culprit in global warming. However, a letter signed by 17,800 scientists contends 'there is no convincing scientific evidence' that human activity is causing 'catastrophic heating of the Earth's atmosphere and disruption of the Earth's climate.'"[26] According to an article in Investor's Business Daily, meanwhile, another Annapolis Center representative, Dick Seibert, has also fundamentally questioned the scientific consensus on climate change. Investor's Business Daily quoted Seibert as follows: "We are warming, but to say that man is causing it, the science really cannot say that. We don't know why it is warming."[27]

By far the greatest offense from the Annapolis Center, however, came in 2004. In that year, the group presented climate change denialist senator James Inhofe with an award for "rational, science-based thinking and policy-making."[28]

8. Arizona State University Office of Climatology

$ 49,500 in 2001.

At the time, this organization was headed by Robert C. Balling, a well known climate change "skeptic." It is unclear from the Arizona State University website whether Balling retains this role today. See Gelbspan, 1997, for his history.

9. Atlas Economic Research Foundation

$ 440,000 from 2000-2003.

Based in Arlington, Virginia, this organization "brings freedom to the world by helping develop and strengthen a network of market-oriented think tanks that spans the globe." Its inclusion on this list springs in large part from the fact that one of its fellows, syndicated columnist Deroy Murdock, has repeatedly debunked the scientific basis for global warming concerns over the years. "As the science behind global warming becomes increasingly sketchy, many environmentalists clutch even harder to their views," Murdock wrote in 1996.[29]

Murdock continued to make such arguments over the time period considered for this study. "Scientists still debate global warming and have observed Earth cooling slightly since 1979," wrote Murdock in The Washington Times in November of 2000.[30] Similarly, in a May 2002 syndicated column, Murdock directly defended Exxon Mobil against critics by arguing that

ExxonMobil advocates voluntary, market-oriented measures to reduce so-called greenhouse gases. Moreover, its management echoes prestigious physicists such as Harvard's Dr. Sallie Baliunas and George Mason University's Dr. Fred Singer, designer of the U.S. weather satellite system. They and at least 17,100 leading scientists nationwide believe that if global warming is afoot, it is minor, manageable and less due to human action than natural causes, such as fluctuations in solar radiation.[31]

Another onetime Atlas fellow, Paul Driessen (see "Center for the Defense of Free Enterprise" and "Congress on Racial Equality"), also has a history of disputing the scientific basis for climate change concerns--including while identifying himself with Atlas. In a 2003 article critical of the oil company BP, for instance, Driessen complained that "In 1997, BP chief Browne endorsed the global warming theory and said tough measures should be imposed quickly, even in the absence of scientific proof."[32]

10. Cato Institute

$ 75,000 from 2000-2003.

The Cato Institute is one of the modern right's most respected think tanks, having been founded in 1977 to advance libertarian ideas. Although not heavily supported by ExxonMobil, its inclusion on this list springs from the fact that its fellows include not just Patrick J. Michaels, but also Steven J. Milloy (see "Advancement of Sound Science Center" and "Free Enterprise Action Institute"), an "adjunct fellow" with the organization.

11. Capital Research Center

$ 115,000 from 2000-2003.

This organization plays the role of a right wing watchdog group that tracks the funding of nonprofit public interest groups, especially environmental organizations. In the process, it challenges many of these groups' activities, including the scientific basis for concern about global warming. Perhaps most notably, in a February 2002 United Press International commentary, Capital Research Center president Terrence Scanlon wrote, "Scientists disagree about climate change, but you wouldn't know that from the [Kyoto] treaty. It is based on a theory that man-made carbon dioxide, or CO2, gas emissions caused by industrial activities have created the so-called 'global warming' effect."[33]

A similar scorn for the findings of mainstream science on climate change can be detected in other products from the Capital Research Center. Thus a report from the group charges that "Like other environmental groups, the Sierra Club bases much of its opposition to fossil fuels development on the scientifically-unproven theory of global warming."[34] Another report criticized Ted Turner for claiming that "humanity is on the verge of extinction due to, among other things, alleged global warming."[35]

12. Center for the New Europe

$ 40,000 in 2003 for "Global Climate Change Program."

This free market think tank, based in Brussels, cites the "fatal economic consequences of the Kyoto Protocol"[36] and sports a website which offers a contrarian commentary on climate science from uber-"skeptic" S. Fred Singer.[37] The only year included in this study for which the group received financial support from Exxon Mobil was 2003 (the last year for which records were available); the next year its president, Tim Evans, challenged climate science in two published letters to British papers. "Not only is the scientific basis of global warming increasingly uncertain, but Kyoto will also ultimately prove to be an economic disaster for Europe -- and the developing world," wrote Evans in a letter to the Daily Telegraph.[38] Another letter from Evans published in the Financial Times repeated a strikingly similar talking point: "Just as the scientific basis for global warming seems increasingly shaky, so it is becoming clearer that Kyoto will itself be largely ineffective because it fails to take account of emissions in the developing world."[39]

13. Center for the Defense of Free Enterprise

$ 40,000 in 2003 for "Global Climate Change Activities."

Although its first year of funding from ExxonMobil was 2003, in the same year this organization's publishing arm released Paul K. Driessen's Eco-Imperialism: Green Power, Black Death, which includes many skeptical statements about the science of climate change, such as calling global warming "nothing more than a frightening theory."[40] Driessen himself is a "senior policy adviser"[41] with the organization, which is linked to the right wing "wise use" movement.

Writing on the CDFE's website, Driessen's recent assertions about climate science include calling the Arctic Climate Impact Assessment "as phony as a three-dollar bill -- as plausible as the 'science' in 'The Day After Tomorrow,'"[42] as well as the following:

Actual satellite and weather balloon data – as well as historic and geologic records of numerous warming and cooling cycles – contradict computer models, theories and assertions that humans are causing disastrous weather events and climate shifts. Arctic temperatures were even higher in the 1930s, before cooling again for several decades….18,000 scientists have signed a petition saying they see "no convincing scientific evidence" that humans are disrupting the earth’s climate.[43]

This is, of course, nothing less than a fundamental questioning of the findings of the IPCC, National Academy of Sciences, and other leading scientific bodies with expertise relevant to climate change.


14. Center for the Study of Carbon Dioxide and Global Change

$ 55,000 from 2000-2003; 2003 grant of $ 40,000 for "Climate Change Activities."

This organization is run by well known "skeptics" Sherwood and Keith Idso, who are discussed in Ross Gelbspan, 1997. The group's "position paper" on carbon dioxide and global warming blatantly and directly questions the scientific consensus on global climate change. "There is little doubt the air's CO2 concentration has risen significantly since the inception of the Industrial Revolution; and there are few who do not attribute the CO2 increase to the increase in humanity's use of fossil fuels," it reads. "There is also little doubt the earth has warmed slightly over the same period; but there is no compelling reason to believe that the rise in temperature was caused by the rise in CO2."[44]

15. Citizens for a Sound Economy

$ 305,250 from 2000-2001, including 250,250 in 2001 for "CO2 Regulation Project."

This organization no longer appears to receive funding from Exxon Mobil, but received a considerable amount in 2000 and 2001. During this time period, CSE correspondingly expressed considerable skepticism about climate science. Writing in the Washington Times on March 25, 2001, the group's Glenn Spencer (identified as "deputy director" of CSE's Center for Environmental Policy) commented, "Why anyone would sign onto a measure so politically lethal [the Kyoto Protocol] is something of a mystery. No new science has emerged to give any credence to claims of human-induced global warming."[45] Two months later, CSE's Pat Burns similarly told The National Journal, "We're trying to answer the enviros on the left. We've taken a highly skeptical view of global warming."[46]

Also in 2001, the Texas branch of Citizens for a Sound Economy engaged in a textbook battle in the state to reform how students learn about global warming. In the midst of this fight, according to a report in the San Antonio Express News, "Peggy Venable, director of Texas Citizens for a Sound Economy, said the science behind global warming is inconclusive, and to teach otherwise is fearmongering."[47]

16. Committee for a Constructive Tomorrow

$ 252,000 from 2000-2003, including $ 25,000 in 2003 for "Climate Change Issues."

This organization was originally founded in 1985 by David Rothbard and Craig Rucker, onetime conservative campus activists who have turned to anti-environmentalism as their particular specialty.[48] The two were questioning global warming concerns as early as 1993--"satellite data, temperature records and ice core samples have led a vast majority of scientists to question the reality of global warming," they wrote at the time[49]--and have continued to do so up to the present. In 2001, CFACT helped organized a trip to Bonn for a group of conservative college students, who took the occasion to challenge the need for action to address global warming and attacked the Kyoto Protocol. "Kyoto is an expensive insurance policy for an empty threat that scientists have not even agreed exists," CFACT's Rucker said at the time.[50]

The CFACT board of scientific and academic advisers includes well known "skeptics" Sallie Baliunas, Robert Balling, Sherwood Idso, and Patrick Michaels.[51] A statement on CFACT's website entitled "Bringing facts, compassion to global warming issue" contains by-now familiar attacks on the scientific consensus on climate change: "You rarely hear that 18,000 scientists have gone on record to say they see no scientific evidence that humans are altering our climate. Nor do you learn that today's computer models are too primitive to predict next winter's climate -- much less the climate for 2025 or 2050….You're rarely told that satellites have found almost no warming over the past 20 years, or that ground temperature gauges are so contaminated by urban and airport heat that they are worthless."[52]

On top of everything else, climate change denier Paul K. Driessen (see "Center for the Defense of Free Enterprise" and "Congress on Racial Equality") is a "senior fellow" with CFACT.

17. Competitive Enterprise Institute

$ 1,380,000 from 2000-2003.

It is hard to know where to begin in describing the attacks on climate change science by this lavishly Exxon Mobil funded organization. First, the group spearheaded a several year long legal attack on the U.S. "National Assessment" of Climate Change, a government report completed in 2000 that studied U.S. vulnerability to the impacts of global warming. Although CEI has labeled the report "junk science,"[53] it has in fact been repeatedly praised by the National Academy of Sciences.

A 2001 NAS report on climate change science actually based an entire section on the National Assessment, which, it said, "provides a basis for summarizing the potential consequences of climate change."[54] In addition, a 2004 NAS panel charged with reviewing the Bush administration's ten year strategic climate change research plan observed that the National Assessment made "important contributions to understanding the possible consequences of climate variability and change," and also praised the process by which it had been created and reviewed.[55]

Besides attacks on the National Assessment, other CEI activities challenging mainstream climate change science include attacking the Arctic Climate Impact Assessment.[56] On its global warming webpage, CEI declares:

…predictions of the extent of future warming are based on implausible scientific and economic assumptions, and the negative impacts of predicted warming have been vastly exaggerated. In the unlikely event that global warming turns out to be a problem, the correct approach is not energy rationing, but rather long-term technological transformation and building resiliency in societies by increasing wealth. CEI has been a leader in the fight against the global warming scare.[57]

Similarly, in 2003 CEI president Fred Smith stated, "climate change science cannot now predict much of anything.  We’ve learned much over the last decade but that learning has increased—not reduced—our uncertainty about the causes of climate change.  The extent to which anthropogenic factors are significant also remains uncertain."[58]  

18. Congress of Racial Equality

$ 40,000 in 2003, $ 15,000 of which was for "Climate Change Outreach Efforts."

A well known civil rights organization historically, more recently this group has received ExxonMobil funding and challenged climate science under the auspices of a broader critique of "eco-imperialist" policies that environmental groups are allegedly foisting on the world's poor. Thus for example, speaking to the New York Sun about the global warming movie The Day After Tomorrow, CORE spokesman Niger Innis commented, "My opinion is that global warming is a fiction. The movie takes bits of pieces of science and exaggerates them."[59]

CORE  has become closely associated with senior policy advisor Paul K. Driessen, who has repeatedly challenged climate science (see "Center for the Defense of Free Enterprise"). CORE's Niger Innis wrote an approving introduction to Driessen's 2003 book Eco-Imperialism: Green Power, Black Death, which suggests that global warming is "nothing more than a frightening theory."[60] At ExxonMobil's 2004 shareholder meeting, CORE was represented by Driessen, who claimed that "Over 18,000 scientists have said they see no convincing, real evidence that humans are disrupting the earth’s climate."[61]

19. Consumer Alert

$ 35,000 from 2000-2003.

Founded in 1977, this organization frames itself as a free-market consumer advocacy organization, dedicated to "advancing competition as the best regulator of business, and individual choice as the best expression of consumer interest."[62] Consumer Alert operates the National Consumer Coalition, under whose auspices the "Cooler Heads Coalition" was in turn formed.[63] Launched in 1996, the Cooler Heads website--www.globalwarming.org--is "paid for and maintained" by Consumer Alert itself.[64] The site is a treasure trove for global warming skepticism and apparently receives "millions of hits."[65]

Consumer Alert itself has Patrick Michaels as a member of its advisory council.[66] Its policy analyst, James Plummer, has written that

The science behind the forecasts of catastrophic global warming remains uncertain. Satellite data continue to show no sure warming trend, and even point to a possible cooling trend. Major contributors to the earth's climate--the sun, the sea, the clouds--and their effects are still not well understood, confounding the computer climate models on which the predictions of dramatic, man-made warming are based.[67]

Among other science debunking activities, Consumer Alert also joined the Competitive Enterprise Institute, Senator James Inhofe, and the Heartland Institute in their lawsuit attacking the "National Assessment" of climate change impacts on the United States.

20. Federalist Society for Law and Public Policy Studies

$ 60,000 from 2000-2003; however, the only years in which activity was detected were 2000 and 2001. The group received $ 15,000 in each year for a total of $ 30,000.

This conservative legal organization does not centrally focus on the climate change issue. Nevertheless, in the organization's "Environmental Law & Property Rights Practice Group Newsletter" we find, in the Winter of 2000, the ubiquitous S. Fred Singer writing, "I must inform you, however, that the science is not settled (as claimed by Vice President Gore), that it is not "compelling" (as claimed by President Clinton), and that there is certainly no scientific consensus favoring global warming."[68]

Similarly, in 2001 the Federalist Society's website directed readers[69] to an analysis of the legality of regulating carbon dioxide under the Clean Air Act which noted, "The evidence supporting CO2’s role in the global warming scenario is hotly debated. There is hardly a consensus on the issue. In fact, the mounting evidence over the most recent years demonstrates that the forecasts for global warming were greatly exaggerated. This new evidence suggests that global warming may not even be occurring."[70]

21. Foundation for Research on Economics and Environment (FREE)

$ 100,000 from 2000-2003.

This Montana-based think tank is headed by John A. Baden, who in 1994 wrote, "Contrary to conventional wisdom, many fundamental questions about global warming remain unanswered. Two crucial questions are: 1) Is significant human-induced global warming actually occurring? 2) If it is occurring, will the net effects be beneficial or harmful? In neither case is the answer an unambiguous 'yes.'"[71] In more recent years Baden's organization appears to have grown more cautious about its contrarian stance on global climate change. Nevertheless, it indulges many of the tropes that we see more broadly among ExxonMobil supported think tanks--especially the selective emphasis on scientific uncertainty and downplaying of climate change severity and impacts.

So for example, in a November 14, 2001 op-ed in the Bozeman Daily Chronicle, Baden wrote that "Aside from agriculture, there is no significant economic activity much affected by climate, certainly not by the relatively minor changes scientists anticipate during the next century."[72] (Relatively minor changes? The IPCC in 2001 provided a range of estimates of possible global average temperature rises--from 1.8 to 5.6 degrees Celsius by 2100.) Similarly, in a November 13, 2002 column in the same outlet FREE's John C. Downen described an event the group had hosted, using a selective emphasis on uncertainty to make the case for inaction: "Given the uncertainty around warming, and the fact that some models predict that temperature increases of up to 4.5 degrees Fahrenheit would have beneficial effects, increasing our adaptability to change may be more important than cutting emissions."[73]

Perhaps most troubling, however, was a September 24, 2003 op-ed by Thomas Schelling, who was described as "FREE's Bill and Reta Haynes Distinguished Scholar in Residence at the 2003 FREE-MSU Federal Judges Seminar Series." Entitled "It's Hot. But Is This the Greenhouse?", Schelling's article included the following passage:

The popular guessing game -- do we see a greenhouse "signature," can we identify a clear "signal" in the "noise"? -- is probably premature. The history of climate shows that sudden changes of global atmospheric temperature have occurred. There are random or "chaotic" influences on global climate -- El Niño is an example, volcanic emissions are another. There are anthropogenic (man-made) influences besides greenhouse gases: aerosols of dust and, especially, sulfur emissions can block incoming sunlight. Urbanization can produce "heat islands" that affect temperature estimates. Finally, most of the globe is ocean; the specific heat of water is great relative to air, and the oceans act as a huge cooling reservoir that delays by perhaps decades the appearance of atmospheric warming.

So the recent temperature record is unlikely to be conclusive on the cause of the warming. Greenhouse warming is not clearly established by the temperature record, nor is it in any way ruled out. We may see the greenhouse "signal" clearly in another decade or two. Meanwhile we have to rely on what science can tell us.[74]

This misrepresents the state of the science; in 2001 the IPCC clearly stated that "most of the observed warming over the last 50 years is likely to have been due to the increase in greenhouse gas concentrations."[75]

22. Fraser Institute

$ 60,000 in 2003 to work on "Climate Change."

The Fraser Institute is a free market think tank based in Vancouver, Canada, which does plenty of debunking of mainstream climate science. A 2001 report by the group, authored by Willie Soon and Sallie Baliunas and entitled "Global Warming: A Guide to the Science," found that "There is no clear evidence, nor unique attribution, of the global effects of anthropogenic CO2 on climate."[76] More recently, in January 2003, the Fraser Institute released a special issue of its publication Fraser Forum dedicated to "The Politics, Science, and Economics of Kyoto," which included another contribution from Willie Soon and Sallie Baliunas suggesting that "the surface warming…may be largely natural and result from the varying total energy output of the sun."[77]

The same issue included a contribution from Kenneth Green (see "Reason Public Policy Institute"), Fraser's "chief scientist," which approvingly cited Baliunas. Wrote Green: "Scientists such as Harvard University’s Sallie Baliunas explain that most observed global warming has been a natural, and largely beneficent phenomenon, primarily related to the increase of energy output from the sun."[78] In a 2003 column published in the Vancouver Province, Green more directly questioned the "still-speculative risk of global warming."[79]

23. Free Enterprise Action Institute

$ 50,000 in 2003; see also the "Advancement of Sound Science Center."

This group, which apparently has no website (at least under the name "Free Enterprise Action Institute"), is registered to the home address of Steven Milloy, according to GuideStar.org.[80] In addition to regularly challenging climate change science (see "Advancement of Sound Science Center"), Milloy publishes[81] CSRWatch.com, which attacks the "corporate social responsibility" movement and is sponsored by the similarly named "Free Enterprise Education Institute."[82]

"Though the Kyoto treaty on global warming has been overwhelmingly rejected by the U.S. Senate (95-0) and the President," the site complains, "global warming activists are pressuring companies to implement the treaty on a private or business-by-business basis."[83] One company that has been pressured to change its greenhouse gas policies by environmental and social justice activists? ExxonMobil.[84]

24. Frontiers of Freedom/Center for Science and Public Policy

$ 612,000 from 2000-2003, including $ 97,000 in 2002 for "Global Climate Change Outreach Activities," $ 35,000 in 2002 for "Global Climate Change Science Projects," $ 95,000 in 2003 for "Global Climate Change Outreach," and $ 50,000 in 2003 for "Global Climate Change Activities."

This Virgina-based outlet was founded by former Wyoming Republican senator Malcolm Wallop, a strong booster of space-based missile defense, in 1995. In a 1997 op-ed criticizing the Kyoto Protocol, Wallop opined, "The theory is that this added carbon dioxide (currently 360 parts per million but rising) will increase the greenhouse effect and lead to higher temperatures. That's theory, not fact. The most accurate temperature measurements from NASA satellites show a slight cooling trend. Should we believe unproven computer models or actual measurements?"[85] Note in particular Wallop's attempt to create an opposition between computer models and observations. The former senator followed up the next year by stating in an interview, "Despite the endless claims by Vice President Gore and his doomsaying allies, there is no scientific consensus that we face catastrophic global warming. There is no consensus nor anything approaching consensus that whatever minimum changes in the climate that have been observed from time to time are man-caused."[86]

During the time period covered by this study--2000 through 2003--Frontiers of Freedom carried forward similar science-disputing climate change activities. That included an April 4, 2000 Capitol Hill symposium on global warming and Kyoto, featuring "skeptics" Willie Soon, Sallie Baliunas, and David Legates, where Wallop declared, "The question of global climate changes has been overrun by shrill, emotionally-charged rhetoric, weak science, and unsupported claims of dire emergency."[87] In a 2001 op-ed, Wallop continued to challenge the science, writing, "to listen to eco-radicals tell the story, it is a proven scientific fact that the climate is warming and that mankind is responsible….nothing could be further from the truth. President Bush is simply acknowledging what the responsible scientific community has been saying for some time -- the scientific evidence for the global warming theory is weak."[88] In 2002, Frontiers of Freedom carried forward the same tack with a National Press Club luncheon titled "Whatever Happened to Global Warming? Climate Science Does Not Support the Kyoto Protocol," featuring "skeptic" S. Fred Singer.[89]

In 2003, Frontiers of Freedom officially launched its Center for Science and Public Policy, which has been heavily involved in the global warming issue, including through its lengthy commentaries on congressional hearings. A typical one noted in part, "The claim that there exists a consensus of scientists that catastrophic man-made global warming is occurring is refuted by overwhelming evidence to the contrary."[90]

25. George C. Marshall Institute

$ 295,000 from 2000-2003, including $ 60,000 in 2001 for "Climate Change Work," $ 80,000 in 2002 for "Global Climate Change Program," and $ 95,000 in 2003 for "Global Climate Change Program."

The Marshall Institute's first activities, in 1984, came in defense of Ronald Reagan's "Star Wars" program.[91] Beginning in 1989, it shifted into the role of one of the leading conservative think tanks disputing climate change science. A 1995 Marshall Institute report by current board of directors member[92] Sallie Baliunas, for instance, found that "predictions of an anthropogenic global warming have been greatly exaggerated…the human contribution to global warming over the course of the 21st century will be less than one degree Celsius and probably only a few tenths of a degree."[93]

The tune had changed little by 2004, when Marshall Institute CEO William O'Keefe wrote in the Atlanta Journal-Constitution, "the science of climate change is far from settled. Neither I nor anyone else knows whether over the course of this century the climate will be a scientific curiosity or a serious ecological threat."[94] One of the Marshall Institute's most frequent lines of attack involves disputing climate models. As O'Keefe put it in 2003, "Most of what we are told by those who claim to be 'mainstream scientists' and the media is the result of statistical analyses and the output of climate models which lack a robust scientific foundation and have not been validated."[95]

Taking a somewhat more subtle stance than other groups that deny human caused climate change outright, the Marshall Institute does not unequivocally dispute any role for human activities in global warming. Rather, it criticizes climate models, repeatedly highlights scientific uncertainty (rather than mainstream conclusions), and argues (contrary to those conclusions) that human activities only represent a small impact on climate change. Thus, in attacking an EPA climate change report in 2002, O'Keefe stated, "All global warming theories agree that if human activity is the primary cause of recent temperature increases, the lower atmosphere would have to warm faster and more than the surface. It has not. The temperature of the lower atmosphere has shown no significant warming trend, according to satellite measurements. It follows that most of the warming is not due to human activities."[96]

26. Heartland Institute

$ 312,500 from 2000-2003.

This Chicago-based think tank joined the Competitive Enterprise Institute in its first lawsuit over the "National Assessment" of climate change impacts on the United States.[97] The group also publishes Environment & Climate News, a regular source of contrarian and skeptical commentary on global climate change, with regular contributions from many of the key players on the conservative side of the debate. (As of 2003 S. Fred Singer and Paul Driessen were "contributing authors."[98])

Among other follies, Environment & Climate News published, in a three part series, Senator James Inhofe lengthy July 28, 2003 Senate floor rant on global warming. Inhofe's speech embraced an outright denialist position on human caused global warming, ending with the following line (reprinted by the Heartland Institute): "With all of the hysteria, all of the fear, all of the phony science, could it be that man-made global warming is the greatest hoax ever perpetrated on the American people? It sure sounds like it."[99]

27. Heritage Foundation

$ 340,000 from 2000-2003, including 25,000 in 2001 for "Climate Change Issues."

Another of the august think tanks of the right, the Heritage Foundation, launched in 1973, has steadily challenged basic climate science in recent years. That included hosting a 2002 lecture by Sallie Baliunas, entitled "Warming Up to the Truth: The Real Story about Climate Change," in which Baliunas suggested that global warming resulted from the sun's activity rather than human emissions:

The surface warming that should be occurring from human-made actions, which is predicted to be accompanied by low troposphere warming, cannot be found in modern records from balloon and satellite platforms.

Thus, the recent surface warming trend may owe largely to changes in the sun's energy output.[100]

This represents just one example out of many of the Heritage Foundation's climate change contrarianism. Speaking to Maine's Portland Press Herald in 2000, Heritage's Brett Schaefer claimed, "Every study I've seen says that global warming is a theory, not a fact."[101]

The Heritage Foundation's energy policy analyst Charli Coon, too, has been a repeated challenger of mainstream climate science. As she wrote in the Washington Times in 2001, "The science is still very uncertain. And we're supposed to blame President Bush for refusing to drive our economy into a ditch over a problem that may not even exist?"[102] Similarly, speaking to Greenwire in 2002, Coon stated, "We do not have conclusive evidence that human activity is causing the climate to warm. Before we start talking about mechanisms to reduce CO2 and increase the cost of energy and perhaps reduce supplies, we need to be focusing on research and sound science."[103] Or consider one more example: Writing in 2003, Coon complained that the Bush administration "stands ready, in effect, to endorse the claim that CO2 causes global warming, even though no proof exists that man-made activities, such as increased dissemination of CO2, have caused this."[104]

28. Hoover Institution

$ 140,000 from 2000-2003; including $ 30,000 in 2003 for "Global Climate Change Projects."

This right-leaning think tank based on the Stanford University campus once again has a history of distorting climate change science. Most egregiously, perhaps, in 2000 the group published a "Hoover Essay in Public Policy" by S. Fred Singer entitled "Climate Policy -- From Rio to Kyoto: A Political Issue for 2000 -- and Beyond."[105] In the summary to this lengthy essay, Singer describes the "observed climate variations" as being "presumably of natural origin." He later continues, "The scientific evidence for a presumed 'human influence' is spurious and based mostly on the selective use of data and choice of particular time periods." At the time, Singer was described as a "visiting Wesson Fellow at the Hoover Institution."[106]

Hoover fellow and syndicated columnist Thomas Sowell has also directly challenged the scientific consensus on climate change. In a 2000 piece, Sowell wrote, "Many scientists are not convinced human activity has much to do with global warming, while some question whether the globe is any warmer today than it was a couple of decades ago, when the big scare was over a 'new ice age.'"[107] Similarly, in a 2001 column Sowell opened with the following:

A new political dogma is being spun in the media. "Science," they say, has now "proved" that global warming is a real danger and that human beings are responsible for it, so that we need to take drastic steps to reduce greenhouse gases. This has been the widespread response to a recent publication by the National Academy of Sciences, which many in the media have taken as proof that we need to follow the drastic requirements of the Kyoto accords, in order to reduce the threat of global warming.

There were some pretty heavy-weight scientists involved in the NAS discussions of the global warming issue. But, as the report itself stated clearly, these scientists not only did not write the report, they didn't even see it before it was published. They "were not asked to endorse the conclusions or recommendation nor did they see the final draft of the report before its release."

So much for "science" having "proved" global warming and its human causation.[108]

Sowell's innuendos notwithstanding, the text of the report in question opens with the following statement, thoroughly reflecting the scientific consensus view: "Greenhouse gases are accumulating in Earth's atmosphere as a result of human activities, causing surface air temperatures and subsurface ocean temperatures to rise. Temperatures are, in fact, rising."[109]

29. Hudson Institute

$ 15,000 in 2000.

This organization has not received much funding from ExxonMobil, but it did receive a small infusion in 2000. In that year, the Institute's American Outlook magazine published a lengthy article by well known "skeptic" S. Fred Singer on global warming, entitled "Cool Planet, Hot Politics: The next president needs to know that the global warming hypothesis, though politically powerful, is scientifically weak."[110]

Typically, Singer denied that a scientific consensus exists on global climate change, writing that "Although the mass media have come to a consensus on global warming, the scientific community has not. Surface temperature data do show a warming since the beginning of the twentieth century, but most of it occurred before 1940, after which the climate cooled for more than three decades. Weather satellite data, the only truly global measurements, show little if any atmospheric warming, in direct disagreement with the best computer-created climate model predictions." Later, Singer even stated, "The 'dwindling band of skeptics' who consider climate warming the 'empirical equivalent of the Easter Bunny' (as Al Gore put it) is growing rapidly."

30. Independent Institute

$ 30,000 from 2000-2003.

Based in Oakland, CA, this outlet seeks to "transcend the all-too-common politicization and superficiality of public policy research and debate."[111] Apparently that includes disputing what scientists know about global climate change. The group boasts S. Fred Singer as a research fellow and published his book Hot Talk Cold Science: Global Warming's Unfinished Debate in 1998.[112] Similarly, the Independent Institute published a 2003 report co-authored by Singer and contrarian David Legates (listed as a "research fellow" at the Independent Institute) entitled "New Perspectives in Climate Science: What the EPA Isn't Telling Us."[113] A relatively nuanced document that does not directly criticize the central scientific consensus view that humans are causing global warming, the report nevertheless claims that "critical portions" of the 2001 U.N. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change report, as well as the 2000 U.S. National Assessment on climate change, are "misleading, inaccurate, unreliable, or simply wrong." Both reports are heavily reviewed scientific consensus documents on climate change.

The Independent Institute's website also provides a lengthy archive[114] of writings by S. Fred Singer, including an article in which he states that "human-induced climate warming, although expected from greenhouse theory, is difficult to demonstrate and likely to remain insignificant in comparison to natural climate variations."[115]

31. Institute for Energy Research

$ 67,000 in 2002 and 2003.

This organization is headed by Robert L. Bradley, Jr., and has Steven Hayward (see "American Enterprise Institute" and "Pacific Research Institute for Public Policy") on its board of directors.[116] Bradley lectures frequently before the American Legislative Exchange Council on energy policy,[117] which published his book Julian Simon and the Triumph of Energy Sustainability in 2000.[118] Bradley has written:

The two global temperature measurements from satellites and balloons in their two decades of existence have not picked up the "greenhouse signal" where it should be most pronounced, or at least discernible: the lower troposphere. This suggests that surface thermometers may be overestimating warming and/or that the surface warming is primarily the result of factors other than just the enhanced greenhouse effect (such as increased solar radiation). A natural warming trend neuters the case for climate alarmism.[119]

Similarly, in a 2003 "Letter to President George W. Bush" on global climate change, Bradley advised that "the uncertain link between industrial emissions and global warming after a century of [greenhouse gas] buildup and decades of study points toward lower-range, benign warming scenarios."[120]

32. International Policy Network

$ 50,000 in 2003 for "climate change outreach."

Based in London, in 2003 this organization released a book entitled Adapt or Die, edited by Kendra Okonski.[121] Although the introduction states, "This book is not an attempt to disprove that global warming is occurring," many of the authors seem to do precisely that. Carlos Stagnaro, for example, writes, "Humanity's carbon emissions have been rising since the Industrial Revolution, and proponents of catastrophic global warming believe that these emissions are causing global warming. But the discontinuity in observed warming in the twentieth century shows that this explanation is wrong. The temperature variations read in the past century could be part of a larger process that is alien to humanity."[122] Similarly, Martin Livermore writes, "We are uncertain what will happen to the earth's climate. In fifty years' time, we may or may not be worried about global warming; we may once again be concerned about global cooling."[123]

In late 2004 the International Policy Network released a lengthy study fretting that "the public is being fed a series of exaggerated claims regarding likely future climate change" thanks to unreliable computer models--models that happen to be the best tools scientists have at their disposal to project how global warming could change our world.[124]

33. Mackinac Center for Public Policy

$ 41,000 from 2000-2002; but activity only detected in 2001, when the group received $ 15,500.

Not a top repository for ExxonMobil's donations, but individuals affiliated with this Michigan-based think tank, too, have challenged climate science. The group appears to have been more vocal during the 1990s than today, but in 2001 Mackinac Center board of scholars member James Sheehan denounced "global warming alarmists,"[125] while board of scholars member Michael Heberling argued, "The Kyoto Protocol seems to be built on the following two assumptions: First, global warming is a function of human activity (with the biggest villains being automobiles, factories, and power plants), and second, we are currently experiencing unprecedented levels of global warming. However, a review of the earth’s most recent 'geological history' brings into question both assumptions and puts the entire subject in a different light."[126]

34. Media Research Center

$ 50,000 in 2003 for "Global Climate Change Activities."

The year after receiving this donation from ExxonMobil, the group produced a report finding that the mainstream media provide biased coverage of climate change, because--among other reasons--they do not adequately cite "valid scientific objection to global warming theories."[127] The Media Research Center also founded[128] the web-based Cybercast News Service, which regularly produces heavily slanted "reports" on climate change (for instance, it has cited Steven Milloy as a scientific authority on the issue of Arctic warming).[129] The outlet used to be called the "Conservative News Service"[130]; you can still reach its website by typing in ConservativeNews.org.

35. Mercatus Center

$ 40,000 in 2003.

You might not think that an academic institution would seriously consider challenging the scientific community's robust consensus view on global climate change, but then, you might not be familiar with George Mason University's Mercatus Center. In a 2001 "public interest comment" on whether the Environmental Protection Agency should regulate greenhouse gas emissions, Mercatus's Kameran L. Bailey stated, "Researchers and modelers continue to investigate this [global warming] theory and its implications. However, they have not yet reached consensus on (1) the link between anthropogenic emissions and global temperatures, (2) the degree of warming that can be expected in future years, or (3) the impact of warming on public health and welfare."[131] Similarly, the Mercatus Center's Brian Mannix has denounced those seeking to regulate carbon dioxide as a "carbon cartel" (although apparently prior to working at Mercatus).[132]

Given that Exxon Mobil only began to fund the Mercatus Center in 2003 according to its reports, these 2001 actions would probably not suffice to justify the group's inclusion on this list. However, in official comments submitted to the White House Office of Management and Budget in 2003, Mercatus's Mannix sent an eight page speech by global warming skeptic Michael Crichton. Crichton's speech likened global warming concerns to a religious belief and stated, "I can tell you that the evidence for global warming is far weaker than its proponents would ever admit."[133] Mannix, for his part, described the speech to OMB as "so striking, and so relevant to the need for scientific peer review in policymaking, that I wanted to bring it to your attention and file it on the record." Given these public comments submitted to the federal government, the Mercatus Center seems to belong on this list.

36. National Black Chamber of Commerce

$ 75,000 from 2001-2003.

This organization, which participated in anti-Kyoto Protocol television ads in 1997[134] and in 2000 co-sponsored a study about the economic impacts of the protocol on blacks and Hispanics,[135] blatantly states on its website that

In December 1997, the 186 signatories to the Framework Convention on Climate Change met in Kyoto, Japan, to conclude an agreement that addresses concerns that increased concentration levels of greenhouse gases within the Earth's atmosphere will lead to climatic disruptions--the global warming theory. Despite continued scientific uncertainties related to this theory, the countries agreed in principle to the Kyoto Protocol--legally binding commitments by 38 industrialized nations to reduce their greenhouse gas emissions to specific levels by specific dates.[136]

This is yet another instance of the selective citation of scientific uncertainty about global warming, without any description of what scientists actually know. The 2000 economic impacts study contained the same language as well; it appears to have been the organization's stance since at least that time.[137]

37. National Center for Policy Analysis

$ 205,000 from 2000-2003.

Based in Dallas, Texas, this organization has as an "adjunct scholar"--lo and behold--S. Fred Singer. In an October 30, 2003 news release timed for a Senate vote on the McCain-Lieberman Climate Stewardship Act, the National Center, quoting Singer, went so far as to question whether the Earth is currently warming at all:

IPCC claims the climate is currently warming. This is based solely on surface thermometer data. It is contradicted not only by superior observations from weather satellites, but also by independent data from radiosondes carried on weather balloons. In addition, proxy data from tree rings, ice cores, etc. confirm that there is no significant current warming.[138]

That's not what you hear from NASA's Goddard Institute for Space Studies, which asserts that the years 1998, 2002, 2003, and 2004 were the four warmest years in the temperature record since the 1890s.[139]

Another NCPA "adjunct scholar" is contrarian or "skeptic" figure David C. Legates. The group's website contains information blatantly challenging the notion of human-induced warming and stating, "The small warming that has occurred is likely a result of natural alterations in global ocean currents -- as yet little understood -- which are driven by variations in the salinity of seawater."[140] Similarly, a 2002 NCPA "daily policy digest" asserted, "There is still no conclusive evidence that human activity is causing global temperatures to rise."[141]

38. National Center for Public Policy Research

$ 130,000 from 2000-2003, including $ 15,000 in 2001 for "Global Climate Change Programs" and $ 30,000 in 2003 for "Global Climate Change/EnviroTruth Website."

The EnviroTruth.org website, supported by the National Center and explicitly funded by Exxon Mobil, has a section listing a number of alleged "myths" about climate change. These include the following: "Humanity is the primary cause of global climate change"; and "The consensus of world scientists, as revealed by the UN's IPCC agree -- humanity is causing significant climate change."[142] EnviroTruth then proceeds to debunk both "myths."

In addition to its EnviroTruth website, the National Center sponsors a online "Global Warming Information Center," which provides, along with various contrarian and "skeptic" links, a document entitled "Questions and Answers on Global Warming."[143] Statements provided there include, "There is no serious evidence that man-made global warming is taking place," and "There are many indications that carbon dioxide does not play a significant role in global warming."

39. Pacific Legal Foundation

$ 65,000 from 2000-2003; but only year in which activity was detected was 2002. The group received $ 15,000 in this year.

This ExxonMobil-supported conservative legal group concerns itself much more with issues like endangered species protections than with global warming. Nevertheless, in a 2002 column published in the San-Diego Union Tribune, Pacific Legal Foundation attorney Anne M. Hayes challenged the California legislature's passage of an "anti-global-warming bill." That included challenging its scientific basis. As she wrote, "Whether global warming is happening is a matter of debate. In contrast, the sardine effect for moms, dads and kids if SUVs are effectively outlawed for the non-rich, is road-tested reality. It will be interesting to see whether [Governor Gray] Davis signs an anti-SUV 'global warming' bill that is really a hit-and-run assault on middle-class families" [italics added].[144]

40. Pacific Research Institute for Public Policy

$ 145,000 from 2000-2003.

A conservative San Francisco-based think tank founded in 1979, the Pacific Research Institute is headed by Sally C. Pipes, who wrote in February 2001 in the San Francisco Examiner, "This winter’s big chill has given global warming enthusiasts some explaining to do. Whether global warming, if it occurs at all, would be a good or bad thing, is another debate entirely."[145] Similarly, in a 2002 Los Angeles Times column, Institute senior fellow Benjamin Zycher wrote, "No one seriously claims to know whether the past warming was caused by human activities; whether further warming will occur and, if it does, whether it will result from human activities, and whether such warming in some general sense would be a bad thing."[146] Writing again in the Los Angeles Times the next year, Zycher called the "purported scientific 'consensus'" on global warming "illusory."[147] The Pacific Research Institute's environmental studies senior fellow, Steven Hayward, has also challenged basic climate science on several occasions (see "American Enterprise Institute").

Perhaps most alarming of all the Pacific Research Institute's products was a December 2003 study by Pipes and Zycher entitled "Attorneys General Versus the EPA." The study contained a lengthy section entitled "What Do the Data Show About Global Climate Change?", which thoroughly misrepresented the science and concluded, "it is far from clear that the earth is warming significantly, particularly in the context of increases above the very long-term average. To the extent that warming is occurring, it is not clear that the dominant source is anthropogenic, and the attendant magnitude is obscure as well."[148]

41. Property and Environment Research Center (formerly Political Economy Research Center)

$ 82,500 from 2000-2003.

This "free market environmentalist" organization, based in Bozeman, Montana, does not appear centrally focused on the climate issue. However, in 2002, the group's Jane Shaw published a book entitled Global Warming as part of PERC's "Critical Thinking About the Environment" series, designed for children. According to a review of the three book series, " Each slim volume of approximately 100 pages gives comprehensive coverage to the hot-button issues, with full weight given to those on both sides of the debate." [149]In short, although the book was not reviewed directly for this analysis, it appears to present a "controversy" over global climate change rather than accurately depicting the consensus view.

PERC also issues "report cards" judging how President Bush has fared on the environment, including on the global warming issue. In giving Bush a B- on global warming over the course of his term, PERC applauded the president for acknowledging "the importance of scientific uncertainty" in the global warming debate--while failing to describe the mainstream scientific view. This selective emphasis on uncertainty, without stating what's actually known, is common among greenhouse "skeptics."[150] In delivering the final "grade" for Bush, the group similarly stated, "Given the uncertain state of scientific knowledge and the economic flaws of the Kyoto Protocol, the Bush administration was right to reject the protocol and to keep reductions of carbon emissions on a voluntary basis."[151]

The PERC interim report card on Bush was even more overt in its embrace of climate change "skeptic" tropes. It stated:

Although many scientists think that global temperatures will rise, the scientific community is skeptical that it will be catastrophic. Over 17,000 scientists in the U.S. have signed the Global Warming Petition. It states, "There is no convincing scientific evidence that human release of carbon dioxide, methane, or other greenhouse gasses is causing or will, in the foreseeable future, cause catastrophic heating of the Earth’s atmosphere and disruption of the Earth’s climate. Moreover, there is substantial scientific evidence that increases in atmospheric carbon dioxide produce many beneficial effects upon the natural plant and animal environments of the Earth."[152]

Once again, the report did acknowledge the scientific consensus on climate change, rather depicting an open debate about the role of human activities.

42. Reason Foundation

$ 259,000 from 2000-2003, but subtract $ 29,000 in 2000 for "Air Quality in Texas." That leaves $ 230,000.

This organization, based in Los Angeles, sponsors the free market Reason Public Policy Institute, which in turn has a special web page on climate change hosted by "adjunct scholar" Kenneth Green (see "Fraser Institute").[153] A kind of clearinghouse, the site includes a number of commentaries on climate science, going as far back as Green's one sided reflection on a 2001 National Academy of Sciences report on climate change science.

Green, like other skeptics, seems to have only pulled out the passages of the report discussing scientific uncertainty.[154] Somehow he managed not to notice (or at least quote) either of the following two statements from the report: "Greenhouse gases are accumulating in Earth's atmosphere as a result of human activities, causing surface air temperatures and subsurface ocean temperatures to rise"; "The IPCC's conclusion that most of the observed warming of the last 50 years is likely to have been due to the increase in greenhouse gas concentrations accurately reflects the current thinking of the scientific community on this issue."

That's just one example of many from the Reason Public Policy Institute, whose commentaries on climate change range from moderate and reasonable to outlandish. In the latter category, the site refers readers to the Center for Carbon Dioxide and Global Change,[155] and contains a commentary from Amy Ridenour, of the National Center for Public Policy Research, which baldly states, "The sun, not a gas, is primarily to 'blame' for global warming -- and plays a very key role in global temperature variations as well."[156] The site also contains an op-ed by Green, published originally in the San Diego Union-Tribune, which commented on a push in California to regulate carbon dioxide as follows:

All of this is being done because some people believe carbon dioxide is causing global warming, and that preventing carbon dioxide from entering the air is the only answer. Never mind that there is still an ongoing scientific debate about global warming itself, and that some respected climate scientists believe that methane is a better target, California legislators have locked their sites on carbon dioxide.[157]

Other examples of Green's willingness to challenge the scientific consensus on climate change can be found under "Fraser Institute."

43. Science and Environmental Policy Project

$ 10,000 in 2000.

This organization is headed by uber-greenhouse "skeptic" S. Fred Singer. For Singer's challenges to climate change science specifically in the year of this grant, 2000, see "Hoover Institution" and "Hudson Institute."

44. Tech Central Science Foundation

$95,000 in 2003 for "Climate Change Support."

Presumably this is synonymous with the website TechCentralStation.com. The site, providing "news, analysis, research, and commentary," is published by the DCI Group, LLC, which happens to be a lobbying shop in Washington, D.C.[158] It is "hosted" by James Glassman, a regular disputer of climate change science (see "American Enterprise Institute"). The site devotes an entire section to "climate change," with commentaries from Robert Balling, Patrick Michaels, Sallie Baliunas, Willie Soon ("the science director for TCS"[159]), and other usual suspects.[160] In a typical contribution on the site from 2001, Soon and Baliunas contest the IPCC's statement of that year that "There is new and stronger evidence that most of the warming observed over the last 50 years is attributable to human activities." Au contraire, say the "skeptics": "This claim is empty. There is stronger evidence that it is not mankind that has caused global warming. It takes some hefty manipulation and illogical explanation of the data to show mankind has contributed anything at all."[161]

We could go into TechCentralStation's myriad climate change contrarian contributions--often accompanied by charts and figures--at exhaustive length, but let's settle for a particularly embarrassing 2003 example from Willie Soon. "The complaint the 'Arctic is melting' as a result of fossil fuel use…has no basis from the climate records of that region and that for the Northern Hemisphere," wrote Soon in March of that year.[162] The next year, out came the Arctic Climate Impact Assessment, heavily peer reviewed and the work of some 300 scientists. It's conclusion? "Examining the record of past climatic conditions indicates that the amount, speed, and pattern of warming experienced in recent decades are indeed unusual and are characteristic of the human caused increase in greenhouse gases."[163]

TOTAL: $ 8,680,950


The American Enterprise Institute/Brookings Institution Joint Center for Regulatory Studies was not included in this analysis, although it received $ 55,000 from ExxonMobil from 2002-2003. That's because during those specific years, no case could be found of the organization directly challenging mainstream scientific conclusions or reports on climate change. While Michael Crichton's January 2005 speech hosted by the Joint Center, described in "Some Like it Hot," certainly crossed the line into challenging mainstream climate science, January 2005 was deemed too far beyond the time range of the study for inclusion.

[1] For the National Academy of Sciences, see "Climate Change Science: An Analysis of Some Key Questions," Committee on the Science of Climate Change, Division on Earth and Life Studies, National Research Council. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, 2001. As the report puts it, "The IPCC's conclusion that most of the observed warming of the last 50 years is likely to have been due to the increase in greenhouse gas concentrations accurately reflects the current thinking of the scientific community on this issue. The stated degree of confidence in the IPCC assessment is higher today than it was 10, or even 5 years ago, but uncertainty remains because of (1) the level of natural variability inherent in the climate system on time scales of decades to centuries, (2) the questionable ability of models to accurately simulate natural variability on those long time scales, and (3) the degree of confidence that can be placed on reconstructions of global mean temperature over the past millennium based on proxy evidence. Despite the uncertainties, there is general agreement that the observed warming is real and particularly strong within the past 20 years. Whether it is consistent with the change that would be expected in response to human activities is dependent upon what assumptions one makes about the time history of atmospheric concentrations of the various forcing agents, particularly aerosols." For the American Meteorological Society, see American Meteorological Society council, "Climate Change Research: Issues for the Atmospheric and Related Sciences," February 9, 2003, noting: "Because human activities are contributing to climate change, we have a collective responsibility to develop and undertake carefully considered response actions." (Available online at http://www.ametsoc.org/POLICY/climatechangeresearch_2003.html, accessed December 22, 2004). For the American Geophysical Union, see American Geophysical Union Council, "Human Impacts on Climate," December 2003, noting, "Scientific evidence strongly indicates that natural influences cannot explain the rapid increase in global near-surface temperatures observed during the second half of the 20th century." (Available online at http://www.agu.org/sci_soc/policy/positions/climate_change.shtml, accessed December 22, 2004).

[2] Acton Institute, "Cornwall Declaration," available online at: http://www.acton.org/ppolicy/environment/cornwall.html (accessed February 13, 2005).

[3] Acton Institute, "The Catholic Church and Stewardship of Creation," available online at http://www.acton.org/ppolicy/environment/theology/m_catholic.html (accessed February 13, 2005).

[4] Acton Institute, "A Biblical Perspective on Environmental Stewardship," available online at http://www.acton.org/ppolicy/environment/theology/m_protest.html (accessed February 13, 2005).

[5] Steven Milloy, "Dirty new warming secret," Washington Times, February 13, 2001.

[6] Steven Milloy, "Bush's misguided push for Son of Kyoto," National Post, June 8, 2001.

[7] Steven Milloy, "Coconuts in Wyoming?", Washington Times, June 25, 2004.

[8] "Tax Policy and Technological Innovation: Key Partners in Productive Climate Change Policy," Senate testimony of Margo Thorning, July 18, 2001. Available online at: http://govt-aff.senate.gov/071801_thorning.pdf (accessed February 27, 2005).

[9] American Council on Science and Health scientific advisers list, available online at http://www.acsh.org/about/pageID.89/default.asp (accessed February 27, 2005). A 1998 report by the Center for Media and Democracy listed Michael and Singer advisers at that time as well, so they would seem to have served in this role for a fairly long time. (Sheldon Rampton and John Stauber, "The Junkyard Dogs of Science," PR Watch 1998, Quarter 4, available online at http://www.prwatch.org/prwissues/1998Q4/dogs.html [accessed February 27, 2005].)

[10] Elizabeth Whelan, "Global Warming Will Not Devastate Human Health," Metropolitan News Enterprise (Los Angeles, California), December 11, 1997.

[11] For the American Enterprise Institute board of trustees, see http://www.aei.org/about/contentID.20038142214500073/default.asp (accessed April 10, 2005).

[12] American Enterprise Institute, "Return to Rio: Reexamining Climate Change Science, Economics, and Policy," November 19, 2003, more information available at http://www.aei.org/events/eventID.669,filter.all/event_detail.asp (accessed April 10, 2005).

[13] James K. Glassman, " Rip it up; stop the climate-change treaty," Washington Times, December 11, 2000.

[14] James K. Glassman, "This is no time for Bush to go wobbly on Kyoto," National Post, May 12, 2001.

[15] See James K. Glassman and Sallie Baliunas, "Bush Is Right on Global Warming;
. . . not that reporters would understand," The Weekly Standard, June 25, 2001, and "Turning up the heat on CO2; Global warming bill threatens economy," The Washington Times, July 4, 2002.

[16] Steven Hayward, "Mixed atmosphere: good and bad environmental reporting swirl together," The American Enterprise, July 1, 2003.

[17] Steven F. Hayward, "Cooled Down - The global-warming hype is running out of (greenhouse?) gas, as it very much deserves," National Review, January 31, 2005.

[18] Christopher DeMuth, "The Kyoto Treaty Deserved to Die," The American Enterprise, September 1, 2001.

[19] U.S. Newswire, "On Earth Day: ALEC Releases New Report on Global Warming and Kyoto Protocol; Kyoto Protocol 'Environmentally Irrelevant,'" April 22, 2002.

[20] Patrick Michaels, "Global Warming and the Kyoto Protocol: paper tiger, economic dragon," The State Factor (American Legislative Exchange Council), April 2002.

[21] According to his byline in Patrick J. Michaels, "Garbage in, legislation out," The Washington Times, August 6, 2002.

[22] Duane Parde, " Skewed road map to Kyoto," Washington Times, June 20, 2003.

[23] John J. Fialka, "Panel Judging EPA's Proposed Air Regulations Receives Most of Its Funding From the Regulated," The Wall Street Journal, January 16, 1997

[24] Harold M. Koenig, "Chicken Little would love global climate report," The Washington Times, July 12, 2000.

[25] Harold M. Koenig and Harrison H. Schmitt, "Basing policy on climate change requires a debate," Baltimore Sun, July 27, 2001.

[26] Harold M. Koenig, "Drain the swamps? (letter)," The Washington Times, November 5, 2003.

[27] Sean Higgins, "Did the White House Flip-Flop on Global Warming or Not?" Investor's Business Daily, June 18, 2002.

[28] U.S. Newswire, "Sen. James M. Inhofe to be Honored by the Annapolis Center for Science-Based Public Policy," April 2, 2004. Available online at: http://releases.usnewswire.com/GetRelease.asp?id=28348 (accessed April 10, 2005).

[29] Deroy Murdock, "You call this global "warming"?" The Washington Times, May 31, 1996.

[30] Deroy Murdock, "Job-killing ideas," The Washington Times, November 5, 2000.

[31] Deroy Murdock, "The attempted greening of ExxonMobil," Scripps Howard News Services, May 16, 2002.

[32] Paul Driessen, "BP--back to petroleum," Review--Institute of Public Affairs, March 2003.

[33] Terrence Scanlon, "Outside View: Hot air blows away," United Press International, February 8, 2002.

[34] John K. Carlisle, "The Sierra Club: Crusading against U.S. energy security," Capital Research Center (Organization Trends), November 2002.

[35] Ivan G. Osorio, "The International Green Agenda: U.S. foundations support environmental activists on the world stage," Capital Research Center (Foundation Watch), November 2003.

[36] See http://www.cne.org/index.htm

[37] http://www.cne.org/pub_pdf/singer_climate_sep_00.PDF 

[38] Tim Evans, "Kyoto will chill the global economy," The Daily Telegraph (letter), October 2, 2004.

[39] Tim Evans, "Beware Kyoto's heavy economic costs," The Financial Times, November 1, 2004.

[40] Paul K. Driessen, Eco-Imperialism: Green Power, Black Death, Free Enterprise Press, Bellevue, WA, 2003-2004. Quotation from page 103.

[41] See Paul K. Driessen, "Trial lawyers discover global warming," Center for the Defense of Free Enterprise, December 18, 2004, available online at: http://www.cdfe.org/trial_lawyers.htm (accessed April 10, 2005).

[42] Ibid.

[43] Paul K. Driessen, "Prophets, False Prophets, and Profiteers," Center for the Defense of Free Enterprise, December 15, 2004, available online at http://www.cdfe.org/prophets.htm (accessed April 10, 2005).

[44] C.D. Idso and K.E. Idso, "Carbon Dioxide and Global Warming: Where we stand on the issue," available online at http://www.co2science.org/scripts/Template/MainPage.jsp?Page=about/position/globalwarming (accessed April 10, 2005).

[45] Glenn Spencer, "The four kings of carbon," The Washington Times, March 25, 2001.

[46] Quoted in Peter H. Stone, Shawn Zeller, Louis Jacobson Marilyn Werber Serafini, "K Street for May 19," The National Journal, May 19, 2001.

[47] Sharon K. Hughes, "Groups criticize proposed texts ; Conservatives duel liberals over books," San Antonio Express-News, September 7, 2001.

[48] See John Graham, "Golden Days," Nuclear News, September 1987.

[49] David Rothbard and Craig Rucker, "A Clinton figleaf in the energy tax?" Washington Times, April 20, 1993.

[50] See Christopher Horner, "A Different Kind of Protester," National Review Online, July 20, 2001.

[51] Available online at http://www.cfact.org/site/default.asp, click "About CFACT." Accessed April 10, 2005.

[52] Committee for a Constructive Tomorrow, "Bringing facts, compassion to global warming issue," March 15, 2004, available online at http://www.cfact.org/site/view_article.asp?idCategory=4&idarticle=436 (accessed April 10, 2005).

[53] Competitive Enterprise Institute press release, "Institute sues president Clinton over junk science," October 5, 2000, available online at http://www.cei.org/gencon/003,02533.cfm (accessed April 12, 2005).

[54] Committee on the Science of Climate Change, National Research Council, "Climate Change Science: An Analysis of Some Key Questions," Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, 2001. See p. 19-20. Available online at: http://www.nap.edu/catalog/10139.html?onpi_webextra6 (accessed August 17, 2004).

[55] Committee to Review the U.S. Climate Change Science Program Strategic Plan, National Research Council, "Implementing Climate and Global Change Research: A Review of the Final U.S. Climate Change Science Program Strategic Plan," Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, 2004. Quotation on p. 13. Available online at: http://www.nap.edu/books/0309088658/html/ (accessed August 19, 2004).

[56] Competitive Enterprise Institute press release, "Climate report counters alarmist hearings," November 16, 2004, available online at http://www.cei.org/gencon/003,04293.cfm (Accessed April 12, 2005).

[57] Competitive Enterprise Institute, "About Global Warming," available online at http://www.cei.org/sections/subsection.cfm?section=3 (accessed April 12, 2005).

[58] Fred Smith, "The Politics of Global Warming," November 29, 2003, available online at http://www.cei.org/gencon/027,03899.cfm (accessed April 12, 2005).

[59] Jill Gardiner, "'Glaciers Don't Care About Politics,'" New York Sun, May 25, 2004.

[60] Paul K. Driessen, Eco-Imperialism: Green Power, Black Death, Free Enterprise Press, Bellevue, WA, 2003-2004. Quotation from page 103.

[61] Paul K. Driessen, Statement at ExxonMobil Annual Shareholder Meeting, May 24, 2004. Available online at: http://www.eco-imperialism.com/content/article.php3?id=61 (accessed February 14, 2005).

[62] Consumer Alert, "Who We Are…" Available online at http://www.consumeralert.org/info/mission.htm (Accessed April 10, 2005).

[63] For more information on the relationship between these organizations in their own words see "The Cooler Heads Coalition," February 4, 2004, available online at http://www.globalwarming.org/article.php?uid=562 (accessed April 10, 2005).

[64] See "About GlobalWarming.org," available online at http://www.globalwarming.org/about.htm (accessed April 10, 2005).

[65] PR Newswire, "Global Warming Web Site Offers News and Information," April 5, 2004.

[66] Consumer Alert, Advisory Council, available online at http://www.consumeralert.org/StaffAdvisors.htm (accessed April 10, 2005).

[67] James Plummer, "Kyoto's Death a Win for Consumers," Consumers' Research Magazine, May 2001, available online at http://www.consumeralert.org/pubs/research/CRMay01.htm (accessed April 10, 2005).

[68] S. Fred Singer, "The Road from Rio To Kyoto: How Climate Science was Distorted to Support Ideological Objectives," Environmental Law and Property Rights Practice Newsletter (Federalist Society), Vol. 3, Issue 3, Winter 2000. Available online at http://www.fed-soc.org/Publications/practicegroupnewsletters/environmentallaw/road-envv3i3.htm (Accessed March 2, 2005).

[69] http://www.fed-soc.org/Publications/practicegroupnewsletters/environmentallaw/news2001.htm

[70] Deborah Simpson and Stephen Simpson, "The Power to Make Law: Can the EPA Regulate CO2 Under the Clean Air Act?" available online at http://www.fed-soc.org/Publications/practicegroupnewsletters/PG%20Links/carbondioxide.pdf (accessed March 2, 2005).

[71] John A. Baden, "The global warming myth and its selfish defenders," Seattle Times, March 23, 1994.

[72] John A. Baden, "The Skeptical Environmentalist?" Bozeman Daily Chronicle, November 14, 2001.

[73] John C. Downen, "Resiliency is the Key to Climate Change," Bozeman Daily Chronicle, November 13, 2002.

[74] Thomas Schelling, "It's Hot. But is this the Greenhouse?" Bozeman Daily Chronicle, September 24, 2003.

[75] IPCC 2001 Summary for Policymakers, available online at: http://www.ipcc.ch/pub/spm22-01.pdf (accessed February 28, 2005).

[76] Sallie Baliunas and Willie Soon, "Global Warming: A Guide to the Science," The Fraser Institute, November 2001, available online at http://www.fraserinstitute.ca/shared/readmore.asp?sNav=pb&id=237 (accessed April 11, 2005).

[77] Willie Soon and Sallie Baliunas, "The Varying Sun and Climate Change," Fraser Forum, January 2003, p. 11-13, available online at http://www.fraserinstitute.ca/admin/books/chapterfiles/The%20Varying%20Sun%20and%20Climate%20Change-Baliunas.pdf# (accessed April 11, 2005).

[78] Kenneth Green, "Kyoto Crazy," Fraser Forum, January 2003, p. 6-7, available online at http://www.fraserinstitute.ca/admin/books/chapterfiles/Kyoto%20Krazy-Green.pdf# (accessed April 11, 2005).

[79] Kenneth Green, "Old school environmentalists need to become more business-minded," The Vancouver Province, June 2, 2003.

[80] See ExxonMobil 2003 giving report. Then see Guidestar on this organization: http://www.guidestar.org/controller/searchResults.gs?action_gsReport=1&npoId=100291848

[81] According to his FoxNews column byline: http://www.foxnews.com/story/0,2933,142991,00.html

[82] http://www.csrwatch.com/about.htm

[83] Ibid.

[84] http://www.campaignexxonmobil.org/ (see also my Lexis file on lobbying at Exxon shareholder meetings).

[85] Malcolm Wallop, "A lot of hot air," St. Paul Pioneer Press, November 30, 1997.

[86] "Unless stopped, the global warming movement could cause economic disaster; interview with former US Sen Malcolm Wallop," World Oil, September 1998.

[87] Event description available online at: http://ff.org/centers/csspp/press/80320040702.html

[88] Malcolm Wallop and George C. Landrith, "Bush is right on issue of warming," Charlotte Observer, July 8, 2001.

[89] Greg Pierce, "Inside Politics," The Washington Times, May 15, 2002.

[90] See http://ff.org/centers/csspp/misc/sciencehearingwatch072903.pdf.

[91] George C. Marshall Institute, 20th Anniversary (1984-2004) DVD, on file with author.

[92] George C. Marshall Institute, board of directors, available online at http://www.marshall.org/board.php (accessed April 12, 2005).

[93] Sallie Baliunas, "Are Human Activities Causing Global Warming," George C. Marshall Institute, January 1, 1995, available online at http://www.marshall.org/article.php?id=79 (Accessed April 12, 2005).

[94] William O'Keefe, "Climate debate isn't about action, it's about knowledge," Atlanta Journal-Constitution, January 6, 2004, available online at http://www.marshall.org/article.php?id=186 (accessed April 12, 2005).

[95] William O'Keefe, Remarks before the Johns Hopkins Transatlantic Dialogue on Climate Change, September 24, 2003, available online at http://www.marshall.org/pdf/materials/171.pdf (accessed April 12, 2005).

[96] William O'Keefe, "New EPA report clouds climate change debate," June 5, 2002, available online at http://www.marshall.org/article.php?id=42 (accessed April 12, 2005).

[97] See Competitive Enterprise Institute, "Inhofe joins lawsuit against Clinton 'climate change' report," October 5, 2000, available online at http://www.cei.org/gencon/003,02532.cfm (accessed April 12, 2005).

[98] Environment and Climate News, December 2003, available online at http://www.heartland.org/pdf/ECNDec03.pdf (accessed April 12, 2005).

[99] James Inhofe, "Senator Refutes Global Warming Hypothesis: Part 3 in a series," Environment and Climate News, January 1, 2004, available online at: http://www.heartland.org/Article.cfm?artId=14021 (accessed April 12, 2005).

[100] Sallie Baliunas, "Warming up to the Truth: The real story about climate change," Heritage Lecture # 758, August 22, 2002, available online at http://www.heritage.org/Research/EnergyandEnvironment/HL758.cfm (accessed April 11, 2005).

[101] Joshua L. Weinstein, "Sounding the Alarm for Maine's Habitat: A global warming report says Maine's wildlife habitat is among the most threatened," Portland Press Herald, August 31, 2000.

[102] Charli Coon, "Taking the Heat on Kyoto," Washington Times, June 17, 2001.

[103] Quoted in Damon Franz, "Climate Change; Enviros team up with labor to propose tax shift," Greenwire, February 21, 2002.

[104] Charli Coon, "It's the science, stupid," April 8, 2003.

[105] S. Fred Singer, "Climate Policy -- From Rio to Kyoto: A Political Issue for 2000 -- and Beyond," Hoover Essay in Public Policy No. 102, 2000, available online at http://www-hoover.stanford.edu/publications/epp/102/102a.html (accessed April 11, 2005).

[106] Business Wire, "Hoover Essay in Public Policy: Climate Policy -- From Rio to Kyoto: A Political Issue for 2000 -- and Beyond; EPP 102, By S. Fred Singer," July 10, 2000.

[107] Thomas Sowell, "Israeli land, peace trade not working," Contra Costa Times, October 23, 2000.

[108] Thomas Sowell, "Hot air propaganda targeting the uninformed," Sun-Sentinel, June 23, 2001.

[109] "Climate Change Science: An Analysis of Some Key Questions," Committee on the Science of Climate Change, Division on Earth and Life Studies, National Research Council. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, 2001. Available online at: http://www.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=10139&page=1#pagetop (accessed April 11, 2005).

[110] S. Fred Singer, "Cool Planet, Hot Politics: The next president needs to know that the global warming hypothesis, though politically powerful, is scientifically weak," American Outlook, Summer 2000. Available online at http://www.americanoutlook.org/index.cfm?fuseaction=article_detail&id=1213 (accessed February 14, 2005).

[111] "About the Independent Institute," http://www.independent.org/aboutus/ (accessed April 11, 2005).

[112] As reported in Paul M. Krawzak, "Singer challenges widespread view on global warming," Copley News Service, July 13, 2001.

[113] S. Fred Singer et al, "New Perspectives in Climate Change: What the EPA isn't telling us," Independent Institute, July 28, 2003, available online at http://www.independent.org/publications/policy_reports/detail.asp?type=full&id=5 (Accessed April 11, 2005).

[114] See http://www.independent.org/aboutus/staff-articles.asp?id=496&pid=2 (Accessed April 11, 2005).

[115] S. Fred Singer, "Bad Data Make Global Warming a Cold Case," available online at http://www.independent.org/newsroom/article.asp?id=1234 (accessed April 11, 2005).

[116] Institute for Energy Research, board of directors, available online at http://www.iertx.org/about.htm (accessed April 12, 2005).

[117] Robert L. Bradley, Jr., Professional Lectures, available online at http://www.iertx.org/Professional_Lectures.htm (Accessed April 12, 2005).

[118] American Legislative Exchange Council, "New book dispels myth of shrinking energy reserves, criticizes anti-production energy policies of the left," October 10, 2000, available online at http://www.alec.org/viewpage.cfm?pgname=3.1aa11 (accessed April 12, 2005).

[119] Robert L. Bradley, Jr., "Climate Alarmism and Corporate Responsibility," Electricity Journal, August, 2000.

[120] Robert L. Bradley, Jr., "Letter to President George W. Bush," in Global Climate Change: The Science, Economics, and Politics, James M. Griffin ed., Edward Elgar: Northampton, MA, 2003. Available online at http://www.iertx.org/Global_Climate_Change.pdf (Accessed April 12, 2005).

[121] Kendra Okonski ed., Adapt or Die: The science, politics and economics of climate change, London: Profile Books, 2003.

[122] Quote on p. 205.

[123] Quote on p. 169.

[124] I have this report and can send it to you.

[125] James Sheehan, "Cooler Heads Prevail on Global Warming," March 26, 2001, available online at: http://www.mackinac.org/article.asp?ID=3386 (accessed February 28, 2005).

[126] Michael Heberling, "Unprecedented Global Warming?", The Freeman, May 2001, available online at: http://www.fee.org/vnews.php?nid=94 (accessed February 28, 2005).

[127] http://www.mrc.org/press/2004/press20041110.asp

[128] http://www.cnsnews.com/corporate/history.asp

[129] For the group's reliance on Milloy see http://www.cnsnews.com/ViewSpecialReports.asp?Page=%5C%5CSpecialReports%5C%5Carchive%5C%5C200412%5C%5CSPE20041214a.html and http://www.cnsnews.com/Nation/archive/200108/NAT20010820a.html

[130] http://secure.mediaresearch.org/press/cns/pr19980616.html

[131] Kameran L. Bailey, "Public Interest Comment on the Environmental Protection Agency’s Request for Comment on a Petition: Control of Emissions From New and In-use Highway Vehicles and Engines," Mercatus Center, May 25, 2001. Available online at: http://www.mercatus.org/pdf/materials/75.pdf (accessed April 12, 2005).

[132] Brian Mannix, "Climate change policy could create the mother of all cartels," Environment and Climate News, June 1, 2001.

[133] Brian Mannix, submission to the Office of Management and Budget, December 15, 2003, available online at: http://www.whitehouse.gov/omb/inforeg/2003iq/122.pdf (accessed April 12, 2005).

[134] Patrice Hill, "Greens feeling blue; Businesses gain ground with TV ads," The Washington Times, November 13, 1997.

[135] National Black Chamber of Commerce (and other groups), "Potential Economic Impacts of the Kyoto Climate Change Protocol on Blacks and Hispanics in the U.S.," June 2000, available online at: http://www.nationalbcc.org/downloads/MISIStudy.pdf (accessed February 28, 2005).

[136] National Black Chamber of Commerce, "Kyoto Treaty," available online at: http://www.nationalbcc.org/issues/default.asp?id=1303 (accessed February 28, 2005).

[137] The same quotation, describing the National Black Chamber of Commerce's position, also appeared in "Black Chamber speaks on issues," Ethnic News Watch/Michigan Chronicle, April 3, 2001.

[138] U.S. Newswire, "Science Behind Global Warming Doesn't Uphold Scrutiny; NCPA's Experts Available to Discuss Climate Change Science," October 30, 2003.

[139] NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies, "Earth Gets a Warm Feeling All Over," February 8, 2005. Available online at: http://www.giss.nasa.gov/research/news/20050208/ (accessed March 12, 2005).

[140] National Center for Policy Analysis, "Human Induced Warming Evaporates in Thin Air," available online at: http://www.ncpa.org/hotlines/global/pd032901e.html (accessed April 12, 2005).

[141] National Center for Policy Analysis Daily Policy Digest, " Why is The Bush Administration About to Endorse Greenhouse Emissions Controls?," February 14, 2002, available online at: http://www.ncpa.org/iss/env/2002/pd021402a.html (accessed April 12, 2005).

[142] Envirotruth website, "Myths and Envirotruth regarding climate change," http://www.envirotruth.org/myths.cfm (Accessed April 12, 2005).

[143] Available online at http://www.nationalcenter.org/KyotoQuestionsAnswers.html (accessed April 12, 2005).

[144] Anne M. Hayes, "Legislature declares war on SUVs," San Diego Union Tribune, July 12, 2002.

[145] Sally C. Pipes, "Global warming suffers a chilling effect," San Francisco Examiner, February 4, 2001.

[146] Benjamin Zycher, "State's Auto Emissions Bill Is Just So Much Gas," Los Angeles Times, May 8, 2002.

[147] Benjamin Zycher, "Suit cites global warming to mask a grab for power," Los Angeles Times, December 5, 2003.

[148] Sally C. Pipes and Benjamin Zycher, "Attorneys General Versus the EPA," December 2003, Pacific Research Institute for Public Policy, available online at http://www.pacificresearch.org/pub/sab/enviro/CO2-Study-12-03.pdf (accessed April 11, 2005).

[149] Candace Crandall, "Environmental book series lacks pizzazz," United Press International, November 22, 2002.

[150] PERC, "Report Card 2004: Global Climate Change," available online at: http://www.perc.org/pdf/reportcard_2004/7globalclimate.pdf (accessed April 12, 2005).

[151] PERC, "Report Card 2004: Executive Summary," available online at http://www.perc.org/pdf/reportcard_2004/00exsummary.pdf (accessed April 12, 2005).

[152] PERC, "Mid-Term Report Card," January 2003, available online at: http://www.perc.org/pdf/reportcard_2002.pdf (accessed April 12, 2005).

[153] Reason Public Policy Institute, "Climate Change," available online at http://www.rppi.org/climate/ (accessed April 13, 2005).

[154] Kenneth Green, "National Academy of Sciences raises more climate questions," Reason Public Policy Institute Rapid Response # 103, June 7, 2001, available online at http://www.rppi.org/rr103.html (Accessed April 13, 2005).

[155] Link on http://www.rppi.org/climate/ (accessed April 13, 2005).

[156] Amy Ridenour, "Global Warming: Why can't the press get even the basic facts right?" March 28, 2004, available online at: http://www.rppi.org/globalwarmingfacts.shtml (accessed April 13, 2005).

[157] Kenneth Green, "Stiffing California Motorists," San Diego Union-Tribune, February 5, 2002. Available online at: http://www.rppi.org/020502.html (accessed April 13, 2005).

[158] See Nicholas Confessore, "Meet the Press," Washington Monthly, December 2003.

[159] Willie Soon bio, available online at http://www.techcentralstation.com/biosoonwillie.html (Accessed April 13, 2005).

[160] Available online at http://www.techcentralstation.com/climatechange.html (accessed April 13, 2005).

[161] Willie Soon and Sallie Baliunas, "Global warming facts, consensus melt away," TechCentralStation.com, October 1, 2001, available online at http://www.techcentralstation.com/100101Q.html (accessed April 13, 2005).

[162] Willie Soon, "Is the Arctic melting?" TechCentralStation.com, March 24, 2003, available online at: http://www.techcentralstation.com/032403B.html (accessed April 13, 2005).

[163] ACIA, Impacts of a Warming Arctic: Arctic Climate Impact Assessment (Synthesis Report), Cambridge University Press: 2004, p. 23.